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Paster, N., Department of Food Science, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Patulin is produced mainly by Penicilium expansum, a common pathogen of apples and pears. This chapter describes ways to remove patulin contamination in the products by trimming away rotten fruits or infected areas. Patulin is stable against acidic pH, and is relatively stable at high temperature. Significant reduction of the toxin is achieved during fermentation, and the rate of disappearance is dependent, among other factors, on the yeast strain and the medium. The amount of the toxin is reduced by the inclusion in the processing of simple and feasible means, applied separately or, preferably, in a combined treatment, thus ensuring that safe products reach the consumer. In addition, the chapter explains ochratoxin A in grapes and in wines. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is in wines produced from grapes grown in hot and humid countries; and Aspergillus carbonarius is the main OTA producer in those areas. OTA producers are present in undamaged grapes and OTA may occur in symptom-free grapes, although in smaller amounts than in damaged fruits. Minimizing injuries caused in the field significantly reduce the amount of OTA in the grapes. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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הספר "אוצר וולקני"
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תנאי שימוש
Means to Prevent Contamination with Patulin in Apple-Derived Produce and with Ochratoxin A in Wines
Paster, N., Department of Food Science, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Means to Prevent Contamination with Patulin in Apple-Derived Produce and with Ochratoxin A in Wines
Patulin is produced mainly by Penicilium expansum, a common pathogen of apples and pears. This chapter describes ways to remove patulin contamination in the products by trimming away rotten fruits or infected areas. Patulin is stable against acidic pH, and is relatively stable at high temperature. Significant reduction of the toxin is achieved during fermentation, and the rate of disappearance is dependent, among other factors, on the yeast strain and the medium. The amount of the toxin is reduced by the inclusion in the processing of simple and feasible means, applied separately or, preferably, in a combined treatment, thus ensuring that safe products reach the consumer. In addition, the chapter explains ochratoxin A in grapes and in wines. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is in wines produced from grapes grown in hot and humid countries; and Aspergillus carbonarius is the main OTA producer in those areas. OTA producers are present in undamaged grapes and OTA may occur in symptom-free grapes, although in smaller amounts than in damaged fruits. Minimizing injuries caused in the field significantly reduce the amount of OTA in the grapes. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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