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Advances in Agronomy
Wang, Y.-J., Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China
Li, C.-B., Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China
Zhou, D.-M., Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China
Friedman, S.P., Institute of Soil, Water, and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
The exchange and adsorption of ions in soils depend on their interactions with the charged mineral and organic soil particles. In the last several decades, these interactions were quantified in terms of adsorption energies, but the few reported attempts to evaluate adsorption energies between ions and soil particles were based on indirect deduction, rather than on direct measurement, because of lack of reliable and practical experimental methods. This chapter presents and reviews a recently suggested Wien Effect method; it offers an opportunity for more reliable and direct characterization and quantification of interactions between soil particles and ions, in terms of several quantifiers that range in nature from phenomenological to mechanistic to thermodynamic. The term "Wien Effect" refers to the increase of electrical conductivity (EC) with increasing applied electrical field ( E). After introducing the subject of ion adsorption on charged soil particles, we describe our first experimental findings and discuss the mechanisms of the Wien Effect in simple electrolyte solutions and in suspensions. We then review a few methods of interpreting Wien Effect measurements in suspensions, along with demonstrating their application to quantifying the particle-ion interactions for several systems of soil, clay, and oxide particles interacting with various cations and anions. The examples of EC(E) measurements of various soil particle-ion systems and their interpretations by several quantifiers presented in this chapter demonstrate the merits of the Wien Effect method for quantifying particle-ion interactions and adsorption energies. Obviously, the Wien Effect method can also be used to characterize the adsorption of ions on other charged, nonsoil colloidal particles. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
פותח על ידי קלירמאש פתרונות בע"מ -
הספר "אוצר וולקני"
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תנאי שימוש
Wien effect in suspensions and its application in soil science: A review
122
Wang, Y.-J., Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China
Li, C.-B., Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China
Zhou, D.-M., Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China
Friedman, S.P., Institute of Soil, Water, and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Wien effect in suspensions and its application in soil science: A review
The exchange and adsorption of ions in soils depend on their interactions with the charged mineral and organic soil particles. In the last several decades, these interactions were quantified in terms of adsorption energies, but the few reported attempts to evaluate adsorption energies between ions and soil particles were based on indirect deduction, rather than on direct measurement, because of lack of reliable and practical experimental methods. This chapter presents and reviews a recently suggested Wien Effect method; it offers an opportunity for more reliable and direct characterization and quantification of interactions between soil particles and ions, in terms of several quantifiers that range in nature from phenomenological to mechanistic to thermodynamic. The term "Wien Effect" refers to the increase of electrical conductivity (EC) with increasing applied electrical field ( E). After introducing the subject of ion adsorption on charged soil particles, we describe our first experimental findings and discuss the mechanisms of the Wien Effect in simple electrolyte solutions and in suspensions. We then review a few methods of interpreting Wien Effect measurements in suspensions, along with demonstrating their application to quantifying the particle-ion interactions for several systems of soil, clay, and oxide particles interacting with various cations and anions. The examples of EC(E) measurements of various soil particle-ion systems and their interpretations by several quantifiers presented in this chapter demonstrate the merits of the Wien Effect method for quantifying particle-ion interactions and adsorption energies. Obviously, the Wien Effect method can also be used to characterize the adsorption of ions on other charged, nonsoil colloidal particles. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Scientific Publication
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