חיפוש מתקדם
biological control (source)
Glazer, I., Department of Nematology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50-250, Israel
Salame, L., Department of Nematology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50-250, Israel
The effect of different osmolytes on the viability and the effect of osmotic pressure on the induction of a dormant state similar to that caused by a slow desiccation rate were evaluated in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae 'All'. For both experiments, a high-temperature (45°C) assay (HTA) was employed. Exposing fresh infective juveniles to the HTA resulted in a drastic reduction in viability. Using the same assay, the mortality of desiccated nematodes was gradual, showing an enhanced ability to withstand high-temperature conditions. The patterns of decline in viability in the evaporatively dehydrated and the osmotically desiccated nematodes were similar. Most of the salts tested in the screening assay caused high mortality levels among the nematodes within the first 24 h of exposure. In contrast, the nonionic solutes tested did not hamper the viability of the infective juveniles. In these nonionic solutions, all nematodes were completely shrunk after 48 h. Furthermore, 72-h exposure to these solutions resulted in an increase in heat tolerance similar to that of the evaporatively dehydrated nematodes. A substantial increase in heat tolerance was recorded in the treatments with glycerol solutions at concentrations from 2.2 to 3.8 M. A similar effect was obtained by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 300 MW at concentrations ranging from 1.2 to 1.6 M. PEG 600 MW induced enhancement of heat tolerance at a concentration of 0.8 M. A high level of viability was attained among nematodes that were stored for 72 days following a gradual increase in glycerol concentrations. Exposure of these nematodes to 45°C in the HTA resulted in 87.3 ± 4.7 and 49.2 ± 3.9% survival after 4 and 8 h, respectively. Reduction in viability was observed among nematodes that were directly exposed to the glycerol solution over a 19-day storage period. With this treatment, survival levels of 72.7 ± 3.9 and 26.5 ± 4.7% after 4 and 8 h, respectively, were recorded in the HTA. Reduction in viability among nematodes stored in distilled water was noted after 36 days of storage. Evaluation of nematode infectivity by two criteria (insect mortality and invasion rate) indicated that infectivity of nematodes desiccated by gradual osmotic pressure induced by glycerol was similar to that of fresh nematodes after 54 days in storage at 25°C. In comparison, infectivity of nematodes stored in distilled water declined significantly compared to that of fresh nematodes. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
פותח על ידי קלירמאש פתרונות בע"מ -
הספר "אוצר וולקני"
אודות
תנאי שימוש
Osmotic survival of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae
18
Glazer, I., Department of Nematology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50-250, Israel
Salame, L., Department of Nematology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50-250, Israel
Osmotic survival of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae
The effect of different osmolytes on the viability and the effect of osmotic pressure on the induction of a dormant state similar to that caused by a slow desiccation rate were evaluated in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae 'All'. For both experiments, a high-temperature (45°C) assay (HTA) was employed. Exposing fresh infective juveniles to the HTA resulted in a drastic reduction in viability. Using the same assay, the mortality of desiccated nematodes was gradual, showing an enhanced ability to withstand high-temperature conditions. The patterns of decline in viability in the evaporatively dehydrated and the osmotically desiccated nematodes were similar. Most of the salts tested in the screening assay caused high mortality levels among the nematodes within the first 24 h of exposure. In contrast, the nonionic solutes tested did not hamper the viability of the infective juveniles. In these nonionic solutions, all nematodes were completely shrunk after 48 h. Furthermore, 72-h exposure to these solutions resulted in an increase in heat tolerance similar to that of the evaporatively dehydrated nematodes. A substantial increase in heat tolerance was recorded in the treatments with glycerol solutions at concentrations from 2.2 to 3.8 M. A similar effect was obtained by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 300 MW at concentrations ranging from 1.2 to 1.6 M. PEG 600 MW induced enhancement of heat tolerance at a concentration of 0.8 M. A high level of viability was attained among nematodes that were stored for 72 days following a gradual increase in glycerol concentrations. Exposure of these nematodes to 45°C in the HTA resulted in 87.3 ± 4.7 and 49.2 ± 3.9% survival after 4 and 8 h, respectively. Reduction in viability was observed among nematodes that were directly exposed to the glycerol solution over a 19-day storage period. With this treatment, survival levels of 72.7 ± 3.9 and 26.5 ± 4.7% after 4 and 8 h, respectively, were recorded in the HTA. Reduction in viability among nematodes stored in distilled water was noted after 36 days of storage. Evaluation of nematode infectivity by two criteria (insect mortality and invasion rate) indicated that infectivity of nematodes desiccated by gradual osmotic pressure induced by glycerol was similar to that of fresh nematodes after 54 days in storage at 25°C. In comparison, infectivity of nematodes stored in distilled water declined significantly compared to that of fresh nematodes. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
Scientific Publication
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