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Tillage practices for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid zone I. Management of fallow during the rainy season preceding cotton
Year:
1983
Source of publication :
Soil and Tillage Research
Authors :
מורין, יוסף
;
.
Volume :
3
Co-Authors:
Rawitz, E., The Seagram Centre for Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Morin, J., Soil Erosion Research Station, Department of Soil Conservation and Drainage, Ministry of Agriculture, Post Emek Hefer 60960, Israel
Hoogmoed, W.B., Tillage Laboratory, Agricultural University, Diedenweg 20, 6703 GW Wageningen, Netherlands
Margolin, M., The Seagram Centre for Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Etkin, H., The Seagram Centre for Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Facilitators :
From page:
211
To page:
231
(
Total pages:
21
)
Abstract:
Field and laboratory experiments were conducted on a crusting loess soil in the northern Negev (Israel) with the aim of improving the efficiency of the use of rain by row crops, either in dryland or irrigated farming, and to decrease erosion. The specific objective of the experiments described was to develop methods that enhance infiltration of rainfall during the winter fallow season in an area with a mean annual rainfall of 400 mm which is subject to wide variation. It was found that the traditional tillage system consisting of deep ploughing (35-45 cm) of dry soil in the fall followed by disking, smoothing and ridging is the worst choise as it could result in runoff losses of as much as 60% of the rainfall, accompanied by accelerated erosion. This water loss can be critical to the success of dryland cotton and also determines whether or not a pre-irrigation of about 25% of the total annual water allotment must be given to irrigated cotton. The traditional practice was compared with: deep ploughed land left fallow during the entire rainy season; ridging after subsoiling instead of deep ploughing; subsoiling and ridging carried out in one minimum tillage operation; direct ridging without primary tillage and basin tillage of ridges following either deep ploughing, subsoiling or minimum tillage. This study showed that by far the most effective method for enhancing infiltration and eliminating runoff was the basin tillage system. The method is adaptable both to mechanized farming and to farming based on animal power or manual labour, and its application can ensure success where rainfall is limiting. It was found that laboratory characterization of soil hydraulic properties with a static rainfall simulator allows prediction of runoff on crusting soils. This means that the need for, and the effectiveness of, conservation measures may be estimated using disturbed soil samples, which is quicker and cheaper than field tests. © 1983.
Note:
Related Files :
עוד תגיות
תוכן קשור
More details
DOI :
10.1016/0167-1987(83)90024-7
Article number:
Affiliations:
Database:
סקופוס
Publication Type:
מאמר
;
.
Language:
אנגלית
Editors' remarks:
ID:
26398
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
17/04/2018 00:22
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Scientific Publication
Tillage practices for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid zone I. Management of fallow during the rainy season preceding cotton
3
Rawitz, E., The Seagram Centre for Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Morin, J., Soil Erosion Research Station, Department of Soil Conservation and Drainage, Ministry of Agriculture, Post Emek Hefer 60960, Israel
Hoogmoed, W.B., Tillage Laboratory, Agricultural University, Diedenweg 20, 6703 GW Wageningen, Netherlands
Margolin, M., The Seagram Centre for Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Etkin, H., The Seagram Centre for Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Tillage practices for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid zone I. Management of fallow during the rainy season preceding cotton
Field and laboratory experiments were conducted on a crusting loess soil in the northern Negev (Israel) with the aim of improving the efficiency of the use of rain by row crops, either in dryland or irrigated farming, and to decrease erosion. The specific objective of the experiments described was to develop methods that enhance infiltration of rainfall during the winter fallow season in an area with a mean annual rainfall of 400 mm which is subject to wide variation. It was found that the traditional tillage system consisting of deep ploughing (35-45 cm) of dry soil in the fall followed by disking, smoothing and ridging is the worst choise as it could result in runoff losses of as much as 60% of the rainfall, accompanied by accelerated erosion. This water loss can be critical to the success of dryland cotton and also determines whether or not a pre-irrigation of about 25% of the total annual water allotment must be given to irrigated cotton. The traditional practice was compared with: deep ploughed land left fallow during the entire rainy season; ridging after subsoiling instead of deep ploughing; subsoiling and ridging carried out in one minimum tillage operation; direct ridging without primary tillage and basin tillage of ridges following either deep ploughing, subsoiling or minimum tillage. This study showed that by far the most effective method for enhancing infiltration and eliminating runoff was the basin tillage system. The method is adaptable both to mechanized farming and to farming based on animal power or manual labour, and its application can ensure success where rainfall is limiting. It was found that laboratory characterization of soil hydraulic properties with a static rainfall simulator allows prediction of runoff on crusting soils. This means that the need for, and the effectiveness of, conservation measures may be estimated using disturbed soil samples, which is quicker and cheaper than field tests. © 1983.
Scientific Publication
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