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Phytopathology
Ramming, D.W., United States Department of Agriculture, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648-9757, United States
Gabler, F., United States Department of Agriculture, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648-9757, United States, California Table Grape Commission, 392 W. Fallbrook, Fresno, CA 93711, United States
Smilanick, J.L., United States Department of Agriculture, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648-9757, United States
Margosan, D.A., United States Department of Agriculture, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648-9757, United States
Cadle-Davidson, M., USDA-ARS, Grape Genetics Research Unit, Geneva, NY 14456, United States
Barba, P., Department of Horticultural Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456, United States
Mahanil, S., USDA-ARS, Grape Genetics Research Unit, Geneva, NY 14456, United States
Frenkel, O., Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States, Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, ARO, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Milgroom, M.G., Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States
Cadle-Davidson, L., USDA-ARS, Grape Genetics Research Unit, Geneva, NY 14456, United States
Race-specific resistance against powdery mildews is well documented in small grains but, in other crops such as grapevine, controlled analysis of host-pathogen interactions on resistant plants is uncommon. In the current study, we attempted to confirm powdery mildew resistance phenotypes through vineyard, greenhouse, and in vitro inoculations for test cross-mapping populations for two resistance sources: (i) a complex hybrid breeding line, 'Bloodworth 81-107-11', of at least Vitis rotundifolia, V. vinifera, V. berlandieri, V. rupestris, V. labrusca, and V. aestivalis background; and (ii) Vitis hybrid 'Tamiami' of V. aestivalis and V. vinifera origin. Statistical analysis of vineyard resistance data suggested the segregation of two and three race-specific resistance genes from the two sources, respectively. However, in each population, some resistant progeny were susceptible in greenhouse or in vitro screens, which suggested the presence of Erysiphe necator isolates virulent on progeny segregating for one or more resistance genes. Controlled inoculation of resistant and susceptible progeny with a diverse set of E. necator isolates clearly demonstrated the presence of fungal races differentially interacting with race-specific resistance genes, providing proof of race specificity in the grape powdery mildew pathosystem. Consistent with known race-specific resistance mechanisms, both resistance sources were characterized by programmed cell death of host epidermal cells under appressoria, which arrested or slowed hyphal growth; this response was also accompanied by collapse of conidia, germ tubes, appressoria, and secondary hyphae. The observation of prevalent isolates virulent on progeny with multiple race-specific resistance genes before resistance gene deployment has implications for grape breeding strategies. We suggest that grape breeders should characterize the mechanisms of resistance and pyramid multiple resistance genes with different mechanisms for improved durability. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.
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Identification of race-specific resistance in North American Vitis spp. limiting Erysiphe necator hyphal growth
102
Ramming, D.W., United States Department of Agriculture, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648-9757, United States
Gabler, F., United States Department of Agriculture, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648-9757, United States, California Table Grape Commission, 392 W. Fallbrook, Fresno, CA 93711, United States
Smilanick, J.L., United States Department of Agriculture, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648-9757, United States
Margosan, D.A., United States Department of Agriculture, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648-9757, United States
Cadle-Davidson, M., USDA-ARS, Grape Genetics Research Unit, Geneva, NY 14456, United States
Barba, P., Department of Horticultural Sciences, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456, United States
Mahanil, S., USDA-ARS, Grape Genetics Research Unit, Geneva, NY 14456, United States
Frenkel, O., Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States, Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, ARO, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Milgroom, M.G., Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States
Cadle-Davidson, L., USDA-ARS, Grape Genetics Research Unit, Geneva, NY 14456, United States
Identification of race-specific resistance in North American Vitis spp. limiting Erysiphe necator hyphal growth
Race-specific resistance against powdery mildews is well documented in small grains but, in other crops such as grapevine, controlled analysis of host-pathogen interactions on resistant plants is uncommon. In the current study, we attempted to confirm powdery mildew resistance phenotypes through vineyard, greenhouse, and in vitro inoculations for test cross-mapping populations for two resistance sources: (i) a complex hybrid breeding line, 'Bloodworth 81-107-11', of at least Vitis rotundifolia, V. vinifera, V. berlandieri, V. rupestris, V. labrusca, and V. aestivalis background; and (ii) Vitis hybrid 'Tamiami' of V. aestivalis and V. vinifera origin. Statistical analysis of vineyard resistance data suggested the segregation of two and three race-specific resistance genes from the two sources, respectively. However, in each population, some resistant progeny were susceptible in greenhouse or in vitro screens, which suggested the presence of Erysiphe necator isolates virulent on progeny segregating for one or more resistance genes. Controlled inoculation of resistant and susceptible progeny with a diverse set of E. necator isolates clearly demonstrated the presence of fungal races differentially interacting with race-specific resistance genes, providing proof of race specificity in the grape powdery mildew pathosystem. Consistent with known race-specific resistance mechanisms, both resistance sources were characterized by programmed cell death of host epidermal cells under appressoria, which arrested or slowed hyphal growth; this response was also accompanied by collapse of conidia, germ tubes, appressoria, and secondary hyphae. The observation of prevalent isolates virulent on progeny with multiple race-specific resistance genes before resistance gene deployment has implications for grape breeding strategies. We suggest that grape breeders should characterize the mechanisms of resistance and pyramid multiple resistance genes with different mechanisms for improved durability. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.
Scientific Publication
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