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Poultry Science
Azoulay, Y., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Druyan, S., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel, Institute of Animal Science, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Yadgary, L., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Hadad, Y., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Cahaner, A., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Hot conditions decrease the difference between ambient temperature (AT) and the average temperature of the body surface. A smaller difference reduces the rate of sensible heat loss of excessive internal heat, elevates the body temperature (BT), and may lead to mortality during heat waves. Under conditions of chronic heat, broilers avoid lethal BT elevation by reducing their feed intake; consequently, growth rate and meat yield are lower. Practices to avoid hot conditions are costly, whereas breeding for heat tolerance offers a sustainable approach. Being featherless was shown to provide heat tolerance; this was reevaluated in experimental broilers with a growth rate similar to that of contemporary commercial broilers. In experiment 1, 26 featherless birds and 49 feathered siblings (sibs) were reared at warm AT and exposed to moderate and acute heat waves. The featherless birds maintained normal BT under a moderate heat wave, with a slight elevation under an acute heat wave, and only 1 bird died. In contrast, the heat waves led to a significant elevation in BT of the feathered sibs, and 34% of them died. In experiment 2, featherless broilers were compared with feathered sibs and commercial broilers at 2 AT treatments: a constant temperature of 25°C (control AT) or a constant temperature of 35°C (hot AT). The birds were reared to 46 or 53 d at the control and hot AT, respectively, and the measured traits included BT, growth, and weight of the whole body and carcass parts (breast meat, legs, wings, and skin). At the hot AT, only the featherless broilers maintained a normal BT; their mean d 46 BW (2,031g) was significantly higher than that of birds maintained at the control AT, and it increased to 2,400 g on d 53, much higher than the corresponding means of all feathered broilers (approximately 1,700 g only). Featherless broilers had significantly higher breast meat yield (approximately 20% in both AT), lower skin weight, and supposedly better wing quality. These results confirmed that being featherless improved the livability and performance of fast-growing broilers in hot conditions and suggests that introduction of the featherless phenotype into commercial broiler stocks would facilitate highly efficient yet low-cost production of broiler meat under hot conditions. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.
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הספר "אוצר וולקני"
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תנאי שימוש
The viability and performance under hot conditions of featherless broilers versus fully feathered broilers
90
Azoulay, Y., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Druyan, S., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel, Institute of Animal Science, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Yadgary, L., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Hadad, Y., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Cahaner, A., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
The viability and performance under hot conditions of featherless broilers versus fully feathered broilers
Hot conditions decrease the difference between ambient temperature (AT) and the average temperature of the body surface. A smaller difference reduces the rate of sensible heat loss of excessive internal heat, elevates the body temperature (BT), and may lead to mortality during heat waves. Under conditions of chronic heat, broilers avoid lethal BT elevation by reducing their feed intake; consequently, growth rate and meat yield are lower. Practices to avoid hot conditions are costly, whereas breeding for heat tolerance offers a sustainable approach. Being featherless was shown to provide heat tolerance; this was reevaluated in experimental broilers with a growth rate similar to that of contemporary commercial broilers. In experiment 1, 26 featherless birds and 49 feathered siblings (sibs) were reared at warm AT and exposed to moderate and acute heat waves. The featherless birds maintained normal BT under a moderate heat wave, with a slight elevation under an acute heat wave, and only 1 bird died. In contrast, the heat waves led to a significant elevation in BT of the feathered sibs, and 34% of them died. In experiment 2, featherless broilers were compared with feathered sibs and commercial broilers at 2 AT treatments: a constant temperature of 25°C (control AT) or a constant temperature of 35°C (hot AT). The birds were reared to 46 or 53 d at the control and hot AT, respectively, and the measured traits included BT, growth, and weight of the whole body and carcass parts (breast meat, legs, wings, and skin). At the hot AT, only the featherless broilers maintained a normal BT; their mean d 46 BW (2,031g) was significantly higher than that of birds maintained at the control AT, and it increased to 2,400 g on d 53, much higher than the corresponding means of all feathered broilers (approximately 1,700 g only). Featherless broilers had significantly higher breast meat yield (approximately 20% in both AT), lower skin weight, and supposedly better wing quality. These results confirmed that being featherless improved the livability and performance of fast-growing broilers in hot conditions and suggests that introduction of the featherless phenotype into commercial broiler stocks would facilitate highly efficient yet low-cost production of broiler meat under hot conditions. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Scientific Publication
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