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פותח על ידי קלירמאש פתרונות בע"מ -
Erosion as affected by soil inherent properties and extrinsic conditions
Year:
2011
Authors :
לוי, גיא
;
.
Volume :
Co-Authors:

Mamedov, A.I., USDA-ARS, Engineering and Wind Erosion Research Unit, Manhattan, KS, United States
Levy, G.J., Dept. of Soil Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Huang, C., USDA-ARS, National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, West Lafayette, IN, United States

Facilitators :
From page:
43
To page:
51
(
Total pages:
9
)
Abstract:
Soil erosion and subsequent pollution by water from agricultural lands is still in need for better understanding and evaluating the impacts of various processes involved. We have summarized, in a systematic manner, the contribution of soil inherent properties and extrinsic conditions on soil erosion from numerous soils collected from the top cultivated layer. The soil inherent properties studied included: (1) predominant clay mineralogy (kaolinitic, illitic and smectitic); (2) soil texture (4-6 typical textural classes from sandy to heavy clay); and (3) organic matter content. The extrinsic conditions studied included: (1) 4-5 levels of rain kinetic energy (KE, 0-22 kJ/m 3); (2) 3-4 wetting rates (WR) of dry soil by rainfall and irrigation water; (3) water quality (rain, fresh, effluent or saline irrigation water); (4) 4-8 antecedent moisture contents (from dry to full saturation) combined with different aging durations between two wettings; (5) tillage intensity (conventional and minimum tillage); and (6) soil sodicity, and use of soil amendments (polymer, gypsum). Soil erosion seems to increase exponentially with the increase in rain KE, rate of soil wetting and soil sodicity. Rain KE and water quality played a predominate role in determining soil loss in medium-and coarse-textured soils, and WR played a predominate role in fine-textured soils (40-70% clay). Soils from semi-arid regions, particularly clay soils, having moisture content in the range between wilting point and field capacity (pF 2.7-4.2) were not susceptible to soil loss. In soils with <40% clay, prevention of physicochemical clay dispersion (e.g., by gypsum application) is preferable for controlling soil erosion, whereas in clay soils, prevention of aggregate slaking during the wetting process of the soil emerged as a more beneficial management; the effect of WR on soil loss increased extensively with the increase in clay content. Effects of minimum-tillage were soil texture and irrigation water quality dependent: soil loss was notably lower under minimum tillage (orchard) than under conventional one (field crops), being more effective in clayey soils for both fresh and effluent water quality. Application of a small amount of dry granular polymer in combination with gypsum may effectively decrease soil loss by 2-4 times relative to the control, mostly in smectitic and mixed soils. Whereas inherent soil properties cannot be changed, conditions prevailing in the soil such as soil WR, moisture content, impact of drop kinetic energy, etc., can be manipulated by changing management practices to arrive at conditions that decrease soil susceptibility to soil erosion and subsequent water quality problems. The current systematic presentation of the existing abundance of data on soil erosion may assist in improving our understanding of the changes in the degree of erosion in arid and humid zone soils. The new insights gained could, in turn, be employed in modeling efforts aimed at the prediction of soil erodibility.
Note:
Related Files :
clayey soils
field crops
irrigation
rain
runoff
soil erosion
Soils
Textures
עוד תגיות
תוכן קשור
More details
DOI :
Article number:
0
Affiliations:
Database:
סקופוס
Publication Type:
מאמר מתוך כינוס
;
.
Language:
אנגלית
Editors' remarks:
ID:
29310
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
17/04/2018 00:45
Scientific Publication
Erosion as affected by soil inherent properties and extrinsic conditions

Mamedov, A.I., USDA-ARS, Engineering and Wind Erosion Research Unit, Manhattan, KS, United States
Levy, G.J., Dept. of Soil Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Huang, C., USDA-ARS, National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, West Lafayette, IN, United States

Erosion as affected by soil inherent properties and extrinsic conditions
Soil erosion and subsequent pollution by water from agricultural lands is still in need for better understanding and evaluating the impacts of various processes involved. We have summarized, in a systematic manner, the contribution of soil inherent properties and extrinsic conditions on soil erosion from numerous soils collected from the top cultivated layer. The soil inherent properties studied included: (1) predominant clay mineralogy (kaolinitic, illitic and smectitic); (2) soil texture (4-6 typical textural classes from sandy to heavy clay); and (3) organic matter content. The extrinsic conditions studied included: (1) 4-5 levels of rain kinetic energy (KE, 0-22 kJ/m 3); (2) 3-4 wetting rates (WR) of dry soil by rainfall and irrigation water; (3) water quality (rain, fresh, effluent or saline irrigation water); (4) 4-8 antecedent moisture contents (from dry to full saturation) combined with different aging durations between two wettings; (5) tillage intensity (conventional and minimum tillage); and (6) soil sodicity, and use of soil amendments (polymer, gypsum). Soil erosion seems to increase exponentially with the increase in rain KE, rate of soil wetting and soil sodicity. Rain KE and water quality played a predominate role in determining soil loss in medium-and coarse-textured soils, and WR played a predominate role in fine-textured soils (40-70% clay). Soils from semi-arid regions, particularly clay soils, having moisture content in the range between wilting point and field capacity (pF 2.7-4.2) were not susceptible to soil loss. In soils with <40% clay, prevention of physicochemical clay dispersion (e.g., by gypsum application) is preferable for controlling soil erosion, whereas in clay soils, prevention of aggregate slaking during the wetting process of the soil emerged as a more beneficial management; the effect of WR on soil loss increased extensively with the increase in clay content. Effects of minimum-tillage were soil texture and irrigation water quality dependent: soil loss was notably lower under minimum tillage (orchard) than under conventional one (field crops), being more effective in clayey soils for both fresh and effluent water quality. Application of a small amount of dry granular polymer in combination with gypsum may effectively decrease soil loss by 2-4 times relative to the control, mostly in smectitic and mixed soils. Whereas inherent soil properties cannot be changed, conditions prevailing in the soil such as soil WR, moisture content, impact of drop kinetic energy, etc., can be manipulated by changing management practices to arrive at conditions that decrease soil susceptibility to soil erosion and subsequent water quality problems. The current systematic presentation of the existing abundance of data on soil erosion may assist in improving our understanding of the changes in the degree of erosion in arid and humid zone soils. The new insights gained could, in turn, be employed in modeling efforts aimed at the prediction of soil erodibility.
Scientific Publication
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