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Journal of Bacteriology
Shemesh, M., Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States
Kolter, R., Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States
Losick, R., Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States
Bacillus subtilis forms biofilms in response to signals that remain poorly defined. We report that biofilm formation is stimulated by sublethal doses of chlorine dioxide (ClO2), an extremely effective and fast-acting biocide. ClO2 accelerated biofilm formation in B. subtilis as well as in other bacteria, suggesting that biofilm formation is a widely conserved response to sublethal doses of the agent. Biofilm formation depends on the synthesis of an extracellular matrix that holds the constituent cells together. We show that the transcription of the major operons responsible for the matrix production in B. subtilis, epsA-epsO and yqxM-sipW-tasA, was enhanced by ClO2, in a manner that depended on the membrane-bound kinase KinC. Activation of KinC appeared to be due to the ability of ClO2 to collapse the membrane potential. Importantly, strains unable to make a matrix were hypersensitive to ClO2, indicating that biofilm formation is a defensive response that helps protect cells from the toxic effects of the biocide. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
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תנאי שימוש
The biocide chlorine dioxide stimulates biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis by activation of the histidine kinase KinC
192
Shemesh, M., Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States
Kolter, R., Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States
Losick, R., Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States
The biocide chlorine dioxide stimulates biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis by activation of the histidine kinase KinC
Bacillus subtilis forms biofilms in response to signals that remain poorly defined. We report that biofilm formation is stimulated by sublethal doses of chlorine dioxide (ClO2), an extremely effective and fast-acting biocide. ClO2 accelerated biofilm formation in B. subtilis as well as in other bacteria, suggesting that biofilm formation is a widely conserved response to sublethal doses of the agent. Biofilm formation depends on the synthesis of an extracellular matrix that holds the constituent cells together. We show that the transcription of the major operons responsible for the matrix production in B. subtilis, epsA-epsO and yqxM-sipW-tasA, was enhanced by ClO2, in a manner that depended on the membrane-bound kinase KinC. Activation of KinC appeared to be due to the ability of ClO2 to collapse the membrane potential. Importantly, strains unable to make a matrix were hypersensitive to ClO2, indicating that biofilm formation is a defensive response that helps protect cells from the toxic effects of the biocide. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
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