נגישות
menu      
חיפוש מתקדם
תחביר
חפש...
הספר "אוצר וולקני"
אודות
תנאי שימוש
ניהול
קהילה:
אסיף מאגר המחקר החקלאי
פותח על ידי קלירמאש פתרונות בע"מ -
Nitrite and catalase levels rule oxidative stability and safety properties of milk: A review
Year:
2014
Source of publication :
RSC Advances
Authors :
מרין, עוזי
;
.
סילניקוב, ניסים
;
.
Volume :
4
Co-Authors:
Silanikove, N., Biology of Lactation Laboratory, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Merin, U., Department of Food Quality and Safety, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Leitner, G., National Mastitis Reference Center, Kimron Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 12, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Facilitators :
From page:
26476
To page:
26486
(
Total pages:
11
)
Abstract:
This review focuses on recent evidence showing that various types of udder inflammation (mastitis) are associated with increased concentration of NO-derived metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, and oxidatively modified organic components under commercial farming and experimental conditions. In milk, NO constantly cycles through: (i) auto oxidation to nitrite; (ii) hydrogen peroxide-dependent conversion of nitrite into NO2 by lactoperoxidase; (iii) interaction of NO2 with thiyl (RS) radicals on proteins formed by NO to generate S-nitrosothiols; and (iv) disintegration of NO from S-nitrosothiols, which completes the cycle. The main mechanism which restrains this cycle is conversion of nitrite to nitrate by catalase in a hydrogen peroxide dependent manner. The main source of hydrogen peroxide in milk derives from the oxidation of secreted hypoxanthine and xanthine by xanthine oxidoreductase. Formation of NO2 has an important role in the glandular innate defense system because it has bactericidal effects towards major pathogens that infect the mammary gland. However, increased formation of NO2 that occurs during mastitis and extended storage of milk for more than three days, even when kept in cold, dark conditions, induce nitrosative stress on milk organic components. Nitrosative stress in milk is reflected by a marked increase in the concentration of 3-nitrotyrosine, carbonyl and lipid peroxides. Thus, it is possible that current criteria for dairy plants acceptance of milk overlook important information on milk safety for consumption by humans. The literature regarding the presence of nitrite and nitrate in milk under experimental, farm and marketed milk is reviewed and the potential implications discussed. Relevant conclusions to improve safety of milk for human consumption are derived, and the particular importance in applying such recommendations for milk designated for the manufacturing of infant formulas is outlined. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.
Note:
Related Files :
Bactericidal effects
Biological materials
Diseases
Lipid peroxides
Nitrates
Nitrosative stress
Xanthine oxidoreductase
עוד תגיות
תוכן קשור
More details
DOI :
10.1039/c4ra03851g
Article number:
0
Affiliations:
Database:
סקופוס
Publication Type:
סקירה
;
.
Language:
אנגלית
Editors' remarks:
ID:
30523
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
17/04/2018 00:55
You may also be interested in
Scientific Publication
Nitrite and catalase levels rule oxidative stability and safety properties of milk: A review
4
Silanikove, N., Biology of Lactation Laboratory, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Merin, U., Department of Food Quality and Safety, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Leitner, G., National Mastitis Reference Center, Kimron Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 12, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Nitrite and catalase levels rule oxidative stability and safety properties of milk: A review
This review focuses on recent evidence showing that various types of udder inflammation (mastitis) are associated with increased concentration of NO-derived metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, and oxidatively modified organic components under commercial farming and experimental conditions. In milk, NO constantly cycles through: (i) auto oxidation to nitrite; (ii) hydrogen peroxide-dependent conversion of nitrite into NO2 by lactoperoxidase; (iii) interaction of NO2 with thiyl (RS) radicals on proteins formed by NO to generate S-nitrosothiols; and (iv) disintegration of NO from S-nitrosothiols, which completes the cycle. The main mechanism which restrains this cycle is conversion of nitrite to nitrate by catalase in a hydrogen peroxide dependent manner. The main source of hydrogen peroxide in milk derives from the oxidation of secreted hypoxanthine and xanthine by xanthine oxidoreductase. Formation of NO2 has an important role in the glandular innate defense system because it has bactericidal effects towards major pathogens that infect the mammary gland. However, increased formation of NO2 that occurs during mastitis and extended storage of milk for more than three days, even when kept in cold, dark conditions, induce nitrosative stress on milk organic components. Nitrosative stress in milk is reflected by a marked increase in the concentration of 3-nitrotyrosine, carbonyl and lipid peroxides. Thus, it is possible that current criteria for dairy plants acceptance of milk overlook important information on milk safety for consumption by humans. The literature regarding the presence of nitrite and nitrate in milk under experimental, farm and marketed milk is reviewed and the potential implications discussed. Relevant conclusions to improve safety of milk for human consumption are derived, and the particular importance in applying such recommendations for milk designated for the manufacturing of infant formulas is outlined. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.
Scientific Publication
You may also be interested in