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Antignus, Y., Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, 50250 Bet Dagan, Israel
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) (Cohen & Antignus, 1994) and some other viruses of the genus Begomovirus has become a limiting factor in tomato production worldwide. The wide global distribution of tomato crops and the dramatic outbreaks of the populations of the exclusive vector of TYLCV, Bemisia tabaci, led to a pandemic of this devastating disease. In the USA, the estimated losses caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses reach about 20% of tomato production, but in the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and Brazil the damage is much greater, ranging between 30% and 100% of the yield. The losses in the Dominican Republic during 1989-1995 were estimated at $50 million (Polston & Anderson, 1997). In African countries, a total of 11,694,000 t of tomatoes were produced on an area of 602,744 ha with an average yield of 19.4 t/ha. As most of the production is in open fields, plants are exposed to infection by TYLCV, which results in severe epidemics of the disease (personal observations). In 1988, losses from this disease in Egypt were estimated at 32,000 ha (Nakhla et al., 1994). The introduction of genetic resistance to commercial tomato cultivars has improved significantly the ability to reduce losses of the disease. However the horticultural quality of many of these varieties is still unsatisfactory and therefore there is a need for an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. Viral plant diseases are not curable, and therefore prevention is the strategy of choice for their control. This chapter will outline the IPM elements that were developed during the last three decades to reduce the spread and damage of viruses belonging to the TYLCV complex. © 2007 Springer Netherlands.
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The management of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in greenhouses and the open field, a strategy of manipulation
Antignus, Y., Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, 50250 Bet Dagan, Israel
The management of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in greenhouses and the open field, a strategy of manipulation
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) (Cohen & Antignus, 1994) and some other viruses of the genus Begomovirus has become a limiting factor in tomato production worldwide. The wide global distribution of tomato crops and the dramatic outbreaks of the populations of the exclusive vector of TYLCV, Bemisia tabaci, led to a pandemic of this devastating disease. In the USA, the estimated losses caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses reach about 20% of tomato production, but in the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and Brazil the damage is much greater, ranging between 30% and 100% of the yield. The losses in the Dominican Republic during 1989-1995 were estimated at $50 million (Polston & Anderson, 1997). In African countries, a total of 11,694,000 t of tomatoes were produced on an area of 602,744 ha with an average yield of 19.4 t/ha. As most of the production is in open fields, plants are exposed to infection by TYLCV, which results in severe epidemics of the disease (personal observations). In 1988, losses from this disease in Egypt were estimated at 32,000 ha (Nakhla et al., 1994). The introduction of genetic resistance to commercial tomato cultivars has improved significantly the ability to reduce losses of the disease. However the horticultural quality of many of these varieties is still unsatisfactory and therefore there is a need for an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. Viral plant diseases are not curable, and therefore prevention is the strategy of choice for their control. This chapter will outline the IPM elements that were developed during the last three decades to reduce the spread and damage of viruses belonging to the TYLCV complex. © 2007 Springer Netherlands.
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