חיפוש מתקדם
Encyclopedia of Agrophysics

Often, the surface of bare soils is topped with a relatively thin and hard layer that tends to peal when it dries. This layer was named “crust,” and the process of its formation was addressed as “soil surface crusting.” Many different causes to its formation were identified: high-intensity rainstorm, fire, microbiological activity, mechanical compaction, or chemical treatments. In some cases, like during rainstorms for example, the formation of that particular layer on top of the soil profile occurs under wet conditions. In those cases, the term “crust” is replaced by the term “seal” to differentiate the layer during its formation from that obtained after drying. When rainfall is the cause to seal formation, structural seals generated by the impact of raindrops, and depositional seals resulting from the settling of suspended solids in runoff can be formed.

Presence of seals or crusts at the soil surface can induce severe agricultural, hydrological, and environmental hazards:...

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Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting
Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting

Often, the surface of bare soils is topped with a relatively thin and hard layer that tends to peal when it dries. This layer was named “crust,” and the process of its formation was addressed as “soil surface crusting.” Many different causes to its formation were identified: high-intensity rainstorm, fire, microbiological activity, mechanical compaction, or chemical treatments. In some cases, like during rainstorms for example, the formation of that particular layer on top of the soil profile occurs under wet conditions. In those cases, the term “crust” is replaced by the term “seal” to differentiate the layer during its formation from that obtained after drying. When rainfall is the cause to seal formation, structural seals generated by the impact of raindrops, and depositional seals resulting from the settling of suspended solids in runoff can be formed.

Presence of seals or crusts at the soil surface can induce severe agricultural, hydrological, and environmental hazards:...

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