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Scientific Reports

Wang, D., Bio-Imaging and Machine Vision Lab, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD  20742, United States; Vinson, R., Bio-Imaging and Machine Vision Lab, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD  20742, United States; Holmes, M., Bio-Imaging and Machine Vision Lab, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD  20742, United States; Seibel, G., Bio-Imaging and Machine Vision Lab, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD  20742, United States; Nof, S., School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, 315N Grant Street, West Lafayette, IN  47907-2023, United States; Tao, Y., Bio-Imaging and Machine Vision Lab, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD  20742, United States

Tomato spotted wilt virus is a wide-spread plant disease in the world. It can threaten thousands of plants with a persistent and propagative manner. Early disease detection is expected to be able to control the disease spread, to facilitate management practice, and further to guarantee accompanying economic benefits. Hyperspectral imaging, a powerful remote sensing tool, has been widely applied in different science fields, especially in plant science domain. Rich spectral information makes disease detection possible before visible disease symptoms showing up. In the paper, a new hyperspectral analysis proximal sensing method based on generative adversarial nets (GAN) is proposed, named as outlier removal auxiliary classifier generative adversarial nets (OR-AC-GAN). It is an all-in-one method, which integrates the tasks of plant segmentation, spectrum classification and image classification. The model focuses on image pixels, which can effectively visualize potential plant disease positions, and keep experts’ attention on these diseased pixels. Meanwhile, this new model can improve the performances of classic spectrum band selection methods, including the maximum variance principle component analysis (MVPCA), fast density-peak-based clustering, and similarity-based unsupervised band selection. Selecting spectrum wavebands reasonably is an important preprocessing step in spectroscopy/hyperspectral analysis applications, which can reduce the computation time for potential in-field applications, affect the prediction results and make the hyperspectral analysis results explainable. In the experiment, the hyperspectral reflectance imaging system covers the spectral range from 395 nm to 1005 nm. The proprosed model makes use of 83 bands to do the analysis. The plant level classification accuracy gets 96.25% before visible symptoms shows up. The pixel prediction false positive rate in healthy plants gets as low as 1.47%. Combining the OR-AC-GAN with three existing band selection algorithms, the performance of these band selection models can be significantly improved. Among them, MVPCA can leverage only 8 spectrum bands to get the same plant level classification accuracy as OR-AC-GAN, and the pixel prediction false positive rate in healthy plants is 1.57%, which is also comparable to OR-AC-GAN. This new model can be potentially transferred to other plant diseases detection applications. Its property to boost the performance of existing band selection methods can also accelerate the in-field applications of hyperspectral imaging technology. © 2019, The Author(s).

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Early Detection of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus by Hyperspectral Imaging and Outlier Removal Auxiliary Classifier Generative Adversarial Nets (OR-AC-GAN)

Wang, D., Bio-Imaging and Machine Vision Lab, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD  20742, United States; Vinson, R., Bio-Imaging and Machine Vision Lab, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD  20742, United States; Holmes, M., Bio-Imaging and Machine Vision Lab, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD  20742, United States; Seibel, G., Bio-Imaging and Machine Vision Lab, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD  20742, United States; Nof, S., School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, 315N Grant Street, West Lafayette, IN  47907-2023, United States; Tao, Y., Bio-Imaging and Machine Vision Lab, Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD  20742, United States

Early Detection of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus by Hyperspectral Imaging and Outlier Removal Auxiliary Classifier Generative Adversarial Nets (OR-AC-GAN)

Tomato spotted wilt virus is a wide-spread plant disease in the world. It can threaten thousands of plants with a persistent and propagative manner. Early disease detection is expected to be able to control the disease spread, to facilitate management practice, and further to guarantee accompanying economic benefits. Hyperspectral imaging, a powerful remote sensing tool, has been widely applied in different science fields, especially in plant science domain. Rich spectral information makes disease detection possible before visible disease symptoms showing up. In the paper, a new hyperspectral analysis proximal sensing method based on generative adversarial nets (GAN) is proposed, named as outlier removal auxiliary classifier generative adversarial nets (OR-AC-GAN). It is an all-in-one method, which integrates the tasks of plant segmentation, spectrum classification and image classification. The model focuses on image pixels, which can effectively visualize potential plant disease positions, and keep experts’ attention on these diseased pixels. Meanwhile, this new model can improve the performances of classic spectrum band selection methods, including the maximum variance principle component analysis (MVPCA), fast density-peak-based clustering, and similarity-based unsupervised band selection. Selecting spectrum wavebands reasonably is an important preprocessing step in spectroscopy/hyperspectral analysis applications, which can reduce the computation time for potential in-field applications, affect the prediction results and make the hyperspectral analysis results explainable. In the experiment, the hyperspectral reflectance imaging system covers the spectral range from 395 nm to 1005 nm. The proprosed model makes use of 83 bands to do the analysis. The plant level classification accuracy gets 96.25% before visible symptoms shows up. The pixel prediction false positive rate in healthy plants gets as low as 1.47%. Combining the OR-AC-GAN with three existing band selection algorithms, the performance of these band selection models can be significantly improved. Among them, MVPCA can leverage only 8 spectrum bands to get the same plant level classification accuracy as OR-AC-GAN, and the pixel prediction false positive rate in healthy plants is 1.57%, which is also comparable to OR-AC-GAN. This new model can be potentially transferred to other plant diseases detection applications. Its property to boost the performance of existing band selection methods can also accelerate the in-field applications of hyperspectral imaging technology. © 2019, The Author(s).

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