חיפוש מתקדם
Oecologia

Rosenheim, J.A., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Booster, N.A., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Culshaw-Maurer, M., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Mueller, T.G., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Kuffel, R.L., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Law, Y.-H., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Goodell, P.B., University of California Statewide IPM Program, Davis, United States; Pierce, T., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Godfrey, L.D., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Hunter, W.B., U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Fort Pierce, FL  34945, United States;

Disease and cannibalism are two strongly density-dependent processes that can suppress predator populations. Here we show that California populations of the omnivorous predatory bug Geocoris pallens are subject to infection by a pathogen, as yet unidentified, that elicits elevated expression of cannibalism. Laboratory experiments showed that the pathogen is moderately virulent, causing flattened abdomens, elevated nymphal mortality, delayed development, and reduced body size of adult females. Infection furthermore increases the expression of cannibalism. Field populations of Geocoris spp. declined strongly in association with sharp increases in the expression of egg cannibalism by adult G. pallens. Increased cannibalism was accompanied by a strongly bimodal distribution of cannibalism expression, with some females (putatively uninfected) expressing little cannibalism and others (putatively infected) consuming most or all of the eggs present. Highly cannibalistic females did not increase their consumption of Ephestia cautella moth eggs, suggesting that the high cannibalism phenotype reflected a specific loss of restraint against eating conspecifics. Highly cannibalistic females also often exhibited reduced egg laying, consistent with a virulent pathogen; less frequently, more cannibalistic females exhibited elevated egg laying, suggesting that cannibalism might also facilitate recycling of nutrients in eggs. Elevated cannibalism was not correlated with reduced prey availability or elevated field densities of G. pallens. Geocoris pallens population crashes appear to reflect the combined consequences of direct virulence—adverse pathogen effects on the infected host’s physiology—and indirect virulence—mortality of both infected and uninfected individuals due to elevated cannibalism expression by infected individuals. © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

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Disease, contagious cannibalism, and associated population crash in an omnivorous bug, Geocoris pallens
190

Rosenheim, J.A., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Booster, N.A., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Culshaw-Maurer, M., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Mueller, T.G., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Kuffel, R.L., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Law, Y.-H., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Goodell, P.B., University of California Statewide IPM Program, Davis, United States; Pierce, T., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Godfrey, L.D., Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA  95616, United States; Hunter, W.B., U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Fort Pierce, FL  34945, United States;

Disease, contagious cannibalism, and associated population crash in an omnivorous bug, Geocoris pallens

Disease and cannibalism are two strongly density-dependent processes that can suppress predator populations. Here we show that California populations of the omnivorous predatory bug Geocoris pallens are subject to infection by a pathogen, as yet unidentified, that elicits elevated expression of cannibalism. Laboratory experiments showed that the pathogen is moderately virulent, causing flattened abdomens, elevated nymphal mortality, delayed development, and reduced body size of adult females. Infection furthermore increases the expression of cannibalism. Field populations of Geocoris spp. declined strongly in association with sharp increases in the expression of egg cannibalism by adult G. pallens. Increased cannibalism was accompanied by a strongly bimodal distribution of cannibalism expression, with some females (putatively uninfected) expressing little cannibalism and others (putatively infected) consuming most or all of the eggs present. Highly cannibalistic females did not increase their consumption of Ephestia cautella moth eggs, suggesting that the high cannibalism phenotype reflected a specific loss of restraint against eating conspecifics. Highly cannibalistic females also often exhibited reduced egg laying, consistent with a virulent pathogen; less frequently, more cannibalistic females exhibited elevated egg laying, suggesting that cannibalism might also facilitate recycling of nutrients in eggs. Elevated cannibalism was not correlated with reduced prey availability or elevated field densities of G. pallens. Geocoris pallens population crashes appear to reflect the combined consequences of direct virulence—adverse pathogen effects on the infected host’s physiology—and indirect virulence—mortality of both infected and uninfected individuals due to elevated cannibalism expression by infected individuals. © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

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