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The use of treated urban wastewater for irrigation in modernagricultural is steadily increasing world-wide and due to shortages offresh water is common today in many regions throughout the world. Utilization of this water source for irrigation in the production fields isan environmentally sustainable approach, which incorporates theadvantage of minimizing the disposal to the environment. Furthermore,irrigation with treated wastewater incorporate benefits to agriculturalby reducing demands for fertilizers inputs as a result of the higherconcentrations of macronutrients in this water. At the same time,inhibiting effects on the irrigated crops may source from the higherconcentrations of salts, bicarbonate, boron, heavy metals, and pH levelpresent in the treated wastewater. The use of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation may result in human exposure to pathogens,creating potential public health problems. Although the concentrationof human pathogens decrease during the wastewater reclamationprocess, the secondary treated effluents most commonly used forirrigation today still contain bacterial human pathogens. National and global regulations were developed and are applied to facilitate optimaland safe production under irrigation with treated wastewater.

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Environmental and Health Implications of Utilization of Treated Wastewater for Agricultural Irrigation

The use of treated urban wastewater for irrigation in modernagricultural is steadily increasing world-wide and due to shortages offresh water is common today in many regions throughout the world. Utilization of this water source for irrigation in the production fields isan environmentally sustainable approach, which incorporates theadvantage of minimizing the disposal to the environment. Furthermore,irrigation with treated wastewater incorporate benefits to agriculturalby reducing demands for fertilizers inputs as a result of the higherconcentrations of macronutrients in this water. At the same time,inhibiting effects on the irrigated crops may source from the higherconcentrations of salts, bicarbonate, boron, heavy metals, and pH levelpresent in the treated wastewater. The use of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation may result in human exposure to pathogens,creating potential public health problems. Although the concentrationof human pathogens decrease during the wastewater reclamationprocess, the secondary treated effluents most commonly used forirrigation today still contain bacterial human pathogens. National and global regulations were developed and are applied to facilitate optimaland safe production under irrigation with treated wastewater.

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