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Einat Shemesh-Mayer

Adi Faigenboim

Tomer E. Ben Michael

Rina Kamenetsky-Goldstein

 

Commercial cultivars of garlic are sterile, and therefore efficient breeding of this crop is impossible. Recent restoration of garlic fertility has opened new options for seed production and hybridization. Transcriptome catalogs were employed as a basis for garlic genetic studies, and in 2020 the huge genome of garlic was fully sequenced. We provide conjoint genomic and transcriptome analysis of the regulatory network in flowering garlic genotypes. The genome analysis revealed phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBP) and LEAFY (LFY) genes that were not found at the transcriptome level. Functions of TFL-like genes were reduced and replaced by FT-like homologs, whereas homologs of MFT-like genes were not found. The discovery of three sequences of LFY-like genes in the garlic genome and confirmation of their alternative splicing suggest their role in garlic florogenesis. It is not yet clear whether AsLFY1 acts alone as the “pioneer transcription factor” or AsLFY2 also provides these functions. The presence of several orthologs of flowering genes that differ in their expression and co-expression network advocates ongoing evolution in the garlic genome and diversification of gene functions. We propose that the process of fertility deprivation in garlic cultivars is based on the loss of transcriptional functions of the specific genes.

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Integrated Genomic and Transcriptomic Elucidation of Flowering in Garlic

Einat Shemesh-Mayer

Adi Faigenboim

Tomer E. Ben Michael

Rina Kamenetsky-Goldstein

 

Integrated Genomic and Transcriptomic Elucidation of Flowering in Garlic

Commercial cultivars of garlic are sterile, and therefore efficient breeding of this crop is impossible. Recent restoration of garlic fertility has opened new options for seed production and hybridization. Transcriptome catalogs were employed as a basis for garlic genetic studies, and in 2020 the huge genome of garlic was fully sequenced. We provide conjoint genomic and transcriptome analysis of the regulatory network in flowering garlic genotypes. The genome analysis revealed phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBP) and LEAFY (LFY) genes that were not found at the transcriptome level. Functions of TFL-like genes were reduced and replaced by FT-like homologs, whereas homologs of MFT-like genes were not found. The discovery of three sequences of LFY-like genes in the garlic genome and confirmation of their alternative splicing suggest their role in garlic florogenesis. It is not yet clear whether AsLFY1 acts alone as the “pioneer transcription factor” or AsLFY2 also provides these functions. The presence of several orthologs of flowering genes that differ in their expression and co-expression network advocates ongoing evolution in the garlic genome and diversification of gene functions. We propose that the process of fertility deprivation in garlic cultivars is based on the loss of transcriptional functions of the specific genes.

Scientific Publication
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