חיפוש מתקדם
Phytopathology

Doron Teper
Frank F White
Nian Wang 

Transcription Activator-Like effectors (TALEs) are bacterial proteins that are injected into eukaryotic nucleus to act as transcriptional factors and function as key virulence factors of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas. TALEs induce the expression of host susceptibility (S) genes to facilitate disease. The unique modular DNA binding domains of TALEs comprise an array of nearly identical direct repeats that enable binding to DNA targets. The nature of TALE structure and function permits the proliferation of TALE genes and evolutionary adaptations in the host to counter TALE function, making the TALE/host interaction the most dynamic story in effector biology. The TALE genes appear to be a relatively young effector gene family, with a presence in all virulent members of some species and absent in others. Genome sequencing has revealed many TALE genes throughout the xanthomonads, and relatively few have been associated with a cognate S gene. Several species, including Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. citri pv. citri, have near absolute requirement for TALE gene function, while the genes appear to be just now entering the disease interactions with new fitness contributions to the pathogens of tomato and pepper among others. Deciphering the simple and effective DNA binding mechanism also has led to the development of DNA manipulation tools in fields of gene editing and transgenic research. In the three decades since discovery, TALE research remains at the forefront of the study of bacterial evolution, plant-pathogen interactions, and synthetic biology. We also discuss critical questions that remain to be addressed regarding TALEs.

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תנאי שימוש
The Dynamic Transcription Activator -Like Effector Family of Xanthomonas

Doron Teper
Frank F White
Nian Wang 

The Dynamic Transcription Activator -Like Effector Family of Xanthomonas

Transcription Activator-Like effectors (TALEs) are bacterial proteins that are injected into eukaryotic nucleus to act as transcriptional factors and function as key virulence factors of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas. TALEs induce the expression of host susceptibility (S) genes to facilitate disease. The unique modular DNA binding domains of TALEs comprise an array of nearly identical direct repeats that enable binding to DNA targets. The nature of TALE structure and function permits the proliferation of TALE genes and evolutionary adaptations in the host to counter TALE function, making the TALE/host interaction the most dynamic story in effector biology. The TALE genes appear to be a relatively young effector gene family, with a presence in all virulent members of some species and absent in others. Genome sequencing has revealed many TALE genes throughout the xanthomonads, and relatively few have been associated with a cognate S gene. Several species, including Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. citri pv. citri, have near absolute requirement for TALE gene function, while the genes appear to be just now entering the disease interactions with new fitness contributions to the pathogens of tomato and pepper among others. Deciphering the simple and effective DNA binding mechanism also has led to the development of DNA manipulation tools in fields of gene editing and transgenic research. In the three decades since discovery, TALE research remains at the forefront of the study of bacterial evolution, plant-pathogen interactions, and synthetic biology. We also discuss critical questions that remain to be addressed regarding TALEs.

Scientific Publication
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