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Cell Stress and Chaperones

Recent decades provide mounting evidence for the continual increase in global temperatures, now termed "global warming," to the point of drastic worldwide change in the climate. Climatic change is a long-term shift in temperatures and weather patterns, including increased frequency and intensity of extreme environmental events such as heat waves accompanied by extreme temperatures and high humidity. Climate change and global warming put several challenges to the livestock industry by directly affecting the animal's production, reproduction, health, and welfare. The broad impact of global warming, and in particular heat stress, on-farm animals' performance has been comprehensively studied. It has been estimated that the US livestock industry's loss caused by heat stress is up to $2.4 billion annually. However, the long-term intergenerational and transgenerational effects of climatic change and global warming on farm animals are sparse. Transgenerational effects, which are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, can affect the animal's performance regardless of its immediate environment by altering its phenotypic expression to fit its ancestors' environment. In many animal species, environmental effects are epigenetically encoded within a narrow time interval during the organism's gametogenesis, and these epigenetic modifications can then be intergenerationally transmitted. Several epigenetic mechanisms mediate intergenerational transmission of environmental effects, typically in a parent-dependent manner. Therefore, exposure of the animal to an extreme climatic event and other environmental stressors during gametogenesis can undergo epigenetic stabilization in the germline and be passed to the offspring. As a result, the offspring might express a phenotype adjusted to fit the stressors experienced by their ancestors, regardless of their direct environment. The purpose of this perspective is to review current evidence for intergenerational and transgenerational transmission of environmental stress effects, specifically in the context of global warming and climate change, and to offer viewpoints on the possible impacts on the livestock industry.

פותח על ידי קלירמאש פתרונות בע"מ -
הספר "אוצר וולקני"
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Transgenerational transmission of environmental effects in livestock in the age of global warming
Transgenerational transmission of environmental effects in livestock in the age of global warming

Recent decades provide mounting evidence for the continual increase in global temperatures, now termed "global warming," to the point of drastic worldwide change in the climate. Climatic change is a long-term shift in temperatures and weather patterns, including increased frequency and intensity of extreme environmental events such as heat waves accompanied by extreme temperatures and high humidity. Climate change and global warming put several challenges to the livestock industry by directly affecting the animal's production, reproduction, health, and welfare. The broad impact of global warming, and in particular heat stress, on-farm animals' performance has been comprehensively studied. It has been estimated that the US livestock industry's loss caused by heat stress is up to $2.4 billion annually. However, the long-term intergenerational and transgenerational effects of climatic change and global warming on farm animals are sparse. Transgenerational effects, which are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, can affect the animal's performance regardless of its immediate environment by altering its phenotypic expression to fit its ancestors' environment. In many animal species, environmental effects are epigenetically encoded within a narrow time interval during the organism's gametogenesis, and these epigenetic modifications can then be intergenerationally transmitted. Several epigenetic mechanisms mediate intergenerational transmission of environmental effects, typically in a parent-dependent manner. Therefore, exposure of the animal to an extreme climatic event and other environmental stressors during gametogenesis can undergo epigenetic stabilization in the germline and be passed to the offspring. As a result, the offspring might express a phenotype adjusted to fit the stressors experienced by their ancestors, regardless of their direct environment. The purpose of this perspective is to review current evidence for intergenerational and transgenerational transmission of environmental stress effects, specifically in the context of global warming and climate change, and to offer viewpoints on the possible impacts on the livestock industry.

Scientific Publication
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