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Irihimovitch, V., Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Tower Road, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States
Stern, D.B., Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Tower Road, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States
Sulfur (S) deprivation responses have been studied extensively in algae and land plants; however, little is known of the signals that link perception of S status to chloroplast gene expression. Here, we have compared the chloroplast S limitation response in WT vs. sac1 and sac3 sulfur acclimation mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtil. We provide evidence that in the WT, chloroplast transcriptional activity rapidly decreases after removal of S from the medium, leading to reduced transcript accumulation. This decrease correlates with reduced abundance of a σ70-like factor, Sig1, which is most likely the unique chloroplast transcription specificity factor. We further show that reduced transcription activity and diminished Sig1 accumulation are mediated by the SAC3 gene product, a putative Snf 1-type Ser/Thr kinase previously shown to have both positive and negative effects on nuclear gene expression. Inclusion of the protein kinase inhibitor 6-dimethyl-aminopurine during S limitation yielded a pattern of expression that was largely similar to that seen in the sac3 mutant, lending support to the hypothesis that Sac3 kinase activation leads to transcriptional repression and Sig1 proteolysis. The finding that Sac3 regulates chloroplast gene expression suggests that it has a previously unknown role in integrating the S limitation response in multiple subcellular compartments. © 2006 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.
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The sulfur acclimation SAC3 kinase is required for chloroplast transcriptional repression under sulfur limitation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
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Irihimovitch, V., Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Tower Road, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States
Stern, D.B., Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Tower Road, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States
The sulfur acclimation SAC3 kinase is required for chloroplast transcriptional repression under sulfur limitation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Sulfur (S) deprivation responses have been studied extensively in algae and land plants; however, little is known of the signals that link perception of S status to chloroplast gene expression. Here, we have compared the chloroplast S limitation response in WT vs. sac1 and sac3 sulfur acclimation mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtil. We provide evidence that in the WT, chloroplast transcriptional activity rapidly decreases after removal of S from the medium, leading to reduced transcript accumulation. This decrease correlates with reduced abundance of a σ70-like factor, Sig1, which is most likely the unique chloroplast transcription specificity factor. We further show that reduced transcription activity and diminished Sig1 accumulation are mediated by the SAC3 gene product, a putative Snf 1-type Ser/Thr kinase previously shown to have both positive and negative effects on nuclear gene expression. Inclusion of the protein kinase inhibitor 6-dimethyl-aminopurine during S limitation yielded a pattern of expression that was largely similar to that seen in the sac3 mutant, lending support to the hypothesis that Sac3 kinase activation leads to transcriptional repression and Sig1 proteolysis. The finding that Sac3 regulates chloroplast gene expression suggests that it has a previously unknown role in integrating the S limitation response in multiple subcellular compartments. © 2006 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.
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