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Journal of Dairy Science
Moallem, U., Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Werner, D., Department of Cattle Husbandry, Extension Service, Ministry of Agriculture, PO Box 28, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Lehrer, H., Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Zachut, M., Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Livshitz, L., Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Yakoby, S., Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Shamay, A., Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Our objectives were to determine the effects of rapid growth rate during the preweaning period and prepubertal protein supplementation on long-term growth pattern and milk production during the first lactation. Forty-six Israeli Holstein heifer calves were fed either milk replacer (MR) or whole milk (WM) from 4 to 60 d age. Calves had free access to WM or MR for 30. min twice daily and free-choice water and starter mix for the entire day. From weaning until 150 d of age, all heifers were fed the same ration. At 150 d of age the heifers were divided into 2 subgroups, with one subgroup supplemented with an additional 2% protein until 320 d of age. Thereafter, all heifers were housed and fed together until calving. Another cluster of 20 heifers was raised on MR and WM treatments and 3 animals from each nursery treatment were slaughtered at 60 d and 10 mo age to determine effects of nursery treatment on organ and adipose tissue mass. Prior to weaning, the MR heifers consumed 0.12 kg/d more DM than the WM heifers, but metabolizable energy intake was not different. Body weight at weaning and average daily gain during the preweaning period were 3.1. kg and 0.074 kg/d higher, respectively, in the WM treatment than in the MR treatment, with no differences in other measurements. Nursery feeding treatment and added protein had no effect on growth rate in the prepubertal period, but the postweaning difference in BW between the WM and MR heifers remained throughout the entire rearing period. The age at first insemination was 23 d earlier and age at pregnancy and first calving was numerically lower for the WM heifers than for the MR heifers. Adipose tissue weights at weaning were doubled in the WM calves. First-lactation milk production and 4% fat-corrected milk were 10.3 and 7.1% higher, respectively, for WM heifers than for MR heifers, whereas prepubertal added protein tended to increase milk yield. In conclusion, preweaning WM at high feeding rates appears to have long-term effects that are beneficial to future milk production. The positive long-term effects of feeding WM on first-lactation milk production were independent of their effects on skeletal growth. Enhanced milk production observed with WM treatment may be related to the milk supply, paracrine or endocrine effects of fat tissues on mammary parenchyma, or a combination of both factors. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.
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Long-term effects of ad libitum whole milk prior to weaning and prepubertal protein supplementation on skeletal growth rate and first-lactation milk production
93
Moallem, U., Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Werner, D., Department of Cattle Husbandry, Extension Service, Ministry of Agriculture, PO Box 28, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Lehrer, H., Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Zachut, M., Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Livshitz, L., Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Yakoby, S., Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Shamay, A., Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel
Long-term effects of ad libitum whole milk prior to weaning and prepubertal protein supplementation on skeletal growth rate and first-lactation milk production
Our objectives were to determine the effects of rapid growth rate during the preweaning period and prepubertal protein supplementation on long-term growth pattern and milk production during the first lactation. Forty-six Israeli Holstein heifer calves were fed either milk replacer (MR) or whole milk (WM) from 4 to 60 d age. Calves had free access to WM or MR for 30. min twice daily and free-choice water and starter mix for the entire day. From weaning until 150 d of age, all heifers were fed the same ration. At 150 d of age the heifers were divided into 2 subgroups, with one subgroup supplemented with an additional 2% protein until 320 d of age. Thereafter, all heifers were housed and fed together until calving. Another cluster of 20 heifers was raised on MR and WM treatments and 3 animals from each nursery treatment were slaughtered at 60 d and 10 mo age to determine effects of nursery treatment on organ and adipose tissue mass. Prior to weaning, the MR heifers consumed 0.12 kg/d more DM than the WM heifers, but metabolizable energy intake was not different. Body weight at weaning and average daily gain during the preweaning period were 3.1. kg and 0.074 kg/d higher, respectively, in the WM treatment than in the MR treatment, with no differences in other measurements. Nursery feeding treatment and added protein had no effect on growth rate in the prepubertal period, but the postweaning difference in BW between the WM and MR heifers remained throughout the entire rearing period. The age at first insemination was 23 d earlier and age at pregnancy and first calving was numerically lower for the WM heifers than for the MR heifers. Adipose tissue weights at weaning were doubled in the WM calves. First-lactation milk production and 4% fat-corrected milk were 10.3 and 7.1% higher, respectively, for WM heifers than for MR heifers, whereas prepubertal added protein tended to increase milk yield. In conclusion, preweaning WM at high feeding rates appears to have long-term effects that are beneficial to future milk production. The positive long-term effects of feeding WM on first-lactation milk production were independent of their effects on skeletal growth. Enhanced milk production observed with WM treatment may be related to the milk supply, paracrine or endocrine effects of fat tissues on mammary parenchyma, or a combination of both factors. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.
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