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Irrigation Science
Levy, G.J., Institute of Soils and Water, ARO, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Levin, J., Institute of Soils and Water, ARO, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Shainberg, I., Institute of Soils and Water, ARO, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
High levels of soil sodicity, resulting from intensive irrigation with saline-sodic waters, lead to an increased soil susceptibility to seal formation and to severe problems of runoff and soil erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the addition of small amounts of an anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to the irrigation water in controlling seal formation, runoff and soil erosion. Two predominantly montmorillonitic soils were studied, a grumusol (Typic Haploxerert) and a loess (Calcic Haploxeralf), having naturally occurring exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP)>12. The soils were exposed to 60 mm of simulated irrigation with commonly used tap water (TW, electrical conductivity=0.8 dS m-1; sodium adsorption ratio (SAR)=2), or saline water (SW, electrical conductivity=5.0 dS m-1; SAR>12). PAM effectiveness in controlling runoff and erosion from the sodic soils was compared with runoff and erosion levels obtained from untreated soils having low ESPs (<4). For both soils and for both water qualities and polymer concentrations in the irrigation water, PAM was efficient in controlling runoff at low ESP levels and inefficient at high ESP levels. At moderate ESP levels, PAM's efficacy in controlling runoff was inconsistent and varied with water quality and polymer concentration. Conversely, in general, soil loss originating from rill erosion, was significantly and effectively reduced in moderate and high ESP soils by addition of PAM to the irrigation water, irrespective of water quality and polymer concentration. PAM was more effective in reducing rill erosion than in reducing runoff in the moderate and high ESP samples, because the energy involved in generating runoff is much higher than that involved in rill erosion. PAM treated surface aggregates were not stable against the distructive forces leading to seal formation and runoff production; but they were stable enough to resist the hydraulic shear exerted by the runoff flow. © 1995 Springer-Verlag.
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Polymer effects on runoff and soil erosion from sodic soils
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Levy, G.J., Institute of Soils and Water, ARO, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Levin, J., Institute of Soils and Water, ARO, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Shainberg, I., Institute of Soils and Water, ARO, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Polymer effects on runoff and soil erosion from sodic soils
High levels of soil sodicity, resulting from intensive irrigation with saline-sodic waters, lead to an increased soil susceptibility to seal formation and to severe problems of runoff and soil erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the addition of small amounts of an anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to the irrigation water in controlling seal formation, runoff and soil erosion. Two predominantly montmorillonitic soils were studied, a grumusol (Typic Haploxerert) and a loess (Calcic Haploxeralf), having naturally occurring exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP)>12. The soils were exposed to 60 mm of simulated irrigation with commonly used tap water (TW, electrical conductivity=0.8 dS m-1; sodium adsorption ratio (SAR)=2), or saline water (SW, electrical conductivity=5.0 dS m-1; SAR>12). PAM effectiveness in controlling runoff and erosion from the sodic soils was compared with runoff and erosion levels obtained from untreated soils having low ESPs (<4). For both soils and for both water qualities and polymer concentrations in the irrigation water, PAM was efficient in controlling runoff at low ESP levels and inefficient at high ESP levels. At moderate ESP levels, PAM's efficacy in controlling runoff was inconsistent and varied with water quality and polymer concentration. Conversely, in general, soil loss originating from rill erosion, was significantly and effectively reduced in moderate and high ESP soils by addition of PAM to the irrigation water, irrespective of water quality and polymer concentration. PAM was more effective in reducing rill erosion than in reducing runoff in the moderate and high ESP samples, because the energy involved in generating runoff is much higher than that involved in rill erosion. PAM treated surface aggregates were not stable against the distructive forces leading to seal formation and runoff production; but they were stable enough to resist the hydraulic shear exerted by the runoff flow. © 1995 Springer-Verlag.
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