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Establishment of shallow and restricted root systems in cotton and its impact on plant response to irrigation
Year:
1992
Source of publication :
Irrigation Science
Authors :
Carmi, Avner
;
.
Grava, Avraham
;
.
Heuer, Bruria
;
.
Plaut, Zvi
;
.
Volume :
13
Co-Authors:
Carmi, A., Institute of Soils and Water, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Plaut, Z., Institute of Soils and Water, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Heuer, B., Institute of Soils and Water, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Grava, A., Institute of Soils and Water, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Facilitators :
From page:
87
To page:
91
(
Total pages:
5
)
Abstract:
The effects of frequent and shallow soil wetting by surface drip irrigation on root growth, morphology, and location, and their impact on plant sensitivity to irrigation management were studied in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Daily drip irrigation, which wetted the 0 to 40-cm soil depth, encouraged root development mainly around the drippers. Water extraction took place mostly from 0 to 20 cm below the drippers, where the roots were concentrated. Shallowness of root growth was not altered by the expansion and deepening of the wetted soil zone which resulted from an increase in amount of irrigation water. The shallow and restricted root system was characterized by a high fraction of thin roots (less than 1 mm dia.) which comprised almost 90% of the root dry matter. Root proximity to the drippers and the limited amount of water in the rooted soil led to a sensitive and quick response of the plants to small amounts of irrigation. A supply of 1.0 mm H2O given at midday to 70 day-old plants resulted in a leaf water potential (L ψw) increase from -1.64 to -1.32 MPa over a 20-min period. This amount of irrigation comprised 15% of the average daily quantity. A 24 h delay in irrigation to 80 dayold plants was enough to decrease L ψw from -1.41 to -2.42 MPa. This decrease was caused by a soil water deficit of less than 6 mm H2O. Extending the irrigation delay to 72 h affected yield and earliness, although the deficient amount of water was supplied over the several days after the treatment. A strong response to minor, but continuous, differences in the daily irrigation amount was detected. Differences in irrigation of less than 1 mm H2O per day applied during the whole growth season substantially affected L ωw, yield and earliness. It was concluded that the establishment of a shallow and restricted root system resulted in strong dependence of the plants on frequent and sufficient supply of water, and temporary minor changes in irrigation affected plant water status and productivity. © 1992 Springer-Verlag.
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DOI :
Article number:
0
Affiliations:
Database:
Scopus
Publication Type:
article
;
.
Language:
English
Editors' remarks:
ID:
19490
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
16/04/2018 23:29
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Scientific Publication
Establishment of shallow and restricted root systems in cotton and its impact on plant response to irrigation
13
Carmi, A., Institute of Soils and Water, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Plaut, Z., Institute of Soils and Water, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Heuer, B., Institute of Soils and Water, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Grava, A., Institute of Soils and Water, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Establishment of shallow and restricted root systems in cotton and its impact on plant response to irrigation
The effects of frequent and shallow soil wetting by surface drip irrigation on root growth, morphology, and location, and their impact on plant sensitivity to irrigation management were studied in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Daily drip irrigation, which wetted the 0 to 40-cm soil depth, encouraged root development mainly around the drippers. Water extraction took place mostly from 0 to 20 cm below the drippers, where the roots were concentrated. Shallowness of root growth was not altered by the expansion and deepening of the wetted soil zone which resulted from an increase in amount of irrigation water. The shallow and restricted root system was characterized by a high fraction of thin roots (less than 1 mm dia.) which comprised almost 90% of the root dry matter. Root proximity to the drippers and the limited amount of water in the rooted soil led to a sensitive and quick response of the plants to small amounts of irrigation. A supply of 1.0 mm H2O given at midday to 70 day-old plants resulted in a leaf water potential (L ψw) increase from -1.64 to -1.32 MPa over a 20-min period. This amount of irrigation comprised 15% of the average daily quantity. A 24 h delay in irrigation to 80 dayold plants was enough to decrease L ψw from -1.41 to -2.42 MPa. This decrease was caused by a soil water deficit of less than 6 mm H2O. Extending the irrigation delay to 72 h affected yield and earliness, although the deficient amount of water was supplied over the several days after the treatment. A strong response to minor, but continuous, differences in the daily irrigation amount was detected. Differences in irrigation of less than 1 mm H2O per day applied during the whole growth season substantially affected L ωw, yield and earliness. It was concluded that the establishment of a shallow and restricted root system resulted in strong dependence of the plants on frequent and sufficient supply of water, and temporary minor changes in irrigation affected plant water status and productivity. © 1992 Springer-Verlag.
Scientific Publication
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