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The effect of three rootstocks on water use, canopy conductance and hydraulic parameters of apple trees and predicting canopy from hydraulic conductance
Year:
2002
Source of publication :
Plant, Cell and Environment
Authors :
Cohen, Shabtai
;
.
Volume :
25
Co-Authors:
Cohen, S., Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, ARO, POB 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Naor, A., Golan Research Institute, POB 97, Kazrin 12900, Israel
Facilitators :
From page:
17
To page:
28
(
Total pages:
12
)
Abstract:
This study investigated the effect of the dwarfing M9, semi-dwarfing MM106 and local Hashabi rootstocks on the water use, canopy conductance (Gc) and hydraulic conductance (k) of apple orchards with the same scion, Golden Delicious. The average summer leaf area index (LAI) was 2.4, 2.7 and 1.7 for M9, MM106 and Hashabi, respectively. Irrigation in 1997 was less than water use until June, and excessive afterwards. In 1998, irrigation was doubled, and was excessive throughout the season. Sap flow (J) in June-August 1998 totalled 476, 682 and 606 mm (or 0.60, 0.86 and 0-76 of class A pan evaporation) for M9, MM106 and Hashabi, respectively. Maximum sap velocity in the three rootstocks (approximately 70 cm h-1) occurred in the outer 30-60% of the stem, and its decrease with depth was greater in M9 than in the other rootstocks. Midday Gc during both summers was least for M9, intermediate for Hashabi and greatest for MM106. The k value of M9 and MM106 for the soil to stem, stem to leaves and soil to leaves pathways were determined from daily courses of water potential of leaves, Ψl, stem, Ψstem and J. Specific k (ks, i.e. relative to stem sapwood area) did not significantly differ between the two rootstocks for soil to stem and soil to leaf pathways, but leaf specific k (kl) was greater for MM106 soil to stem (71% greater) and soil to leaf (63%) pathways, respectively. The inverse slopes of the relationships between midday canopy resistance (Rc) and vapour pressure deficit (D) for MM106 was 1.75 of that for M9, and the ratio of their Huber values, i.e. the ratio of sapwood to leaf area, was 1.6. These findings indicate that differences in water use are attributable to differences in kl, and not to differences in wood properties (ks). Application of a model relating Rc to orchard area specific k (kg) showed that the slope of the relationships between midday Rc and D for the 1998 data could be predicted using common values of ks (0.134 kg m-2 s-1 MPa-1) and midday Ψ (-1.34 MPa) for the three rootstocks. The implications of these findings, and the similarities in the differences between rootstocks of Gc, kl, kg and Huber values, are discussed with respect to rootstock water use and irrigation.
Note:
Related Files :
Apple orchard
hydraulic conductivity
irrigation
leaf area index
M9
Malus
Malus domestica
Malus x domestica
MM106
Water relations
Show More
Related Content
More details
DOI :
10.1046/j.1365-3040.2002.00795.x
Article number:
Affiliations:
Database:
Scopus
Publication Type:
article
;
.
Language:
English
Editors' remarks:
ID:
19497
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
16/04/2018 23:29
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Scientific Publication
The effect of three rootstocks on water use, canopy conductance and hydraulic parameters of apple trees and predicting canopy from hydraulic conductance
25
Cohen, S., Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, ARO, POB 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Naor, A., Golan Research Institute, POB 97, Kazrin 12900, Israel
The effect of three rootstocks on water use, canopy conductance and hydraulic parameters of apple trees and predicting canopy from hydraulic conductance
This study investigated the effect of the dwarfing M9, semi-dwarfing MM106 and local Hashabi rootstocks on the water use, canopy conductance (Gc) and hydraulic conductance (k) of apple orchards with the same scion, Golden Delicious. The average summer leaf area index (LAI) was 2.4, 2.7 and 1.7 for M9, MM106 and Hashabi, respectively. Irrigation in 1997 was less than water use until June, and excessive afterwards. In 1998, irrigation was doubled, and was excessive throughout the season. Sap flow (J) in June-August 1998 totalled 476, 682 and 606 mm (or 0.60, 0.86 and 0-76 of class A pan evaporation) for M9, MM106 and Hashabi, respectively. Maximum sap velocity in the three rootstocks (approximately 70 cm h-1) occurred in the outer 30-60% of the stem, and its decrease with depth was greater in M9 than in the other rootstocks. Midday Gc during both summers was least for M9, intermediate for Hashabi and greatest for MM106. The k value of M9 and MM106 for the soil to stem, stem to leaves and soil to leaves pathways were determined from daily courses of water potential of leaves, Ψl, stem, Ψstem and J. Specific k (ks, i.e. relative to stem sapwood area) did not significantly differ between the two rootstocks for soil to stem and soil to leaf pathways, but leaf specific k (kl) was greater for MM106 soil to stem (71% greater) and soil to leaf (63%) pathways, respectively. The inverse slopes of the relationships between midday canopy resistance (Rc) and vapour pressure deficit (D) for MM106 was 1.75 of that for M9, and the ratio of their Huber values, i.e. the ratio of sapwood to leaf area, was 1.6. These findings indicate that differences in water use are attributable to differences in kl, and not to differences in wood properties (ks). Application of a model relating Rc to orchard area specific k (kg) showed that the slope of the relationships between midday Rc and D for the 1998 data could be predicted using common values of ks (0.134 kg m-2 s-1 MPa-1) and midday Ψ (-1.34 MPa) for the three rootstocks. The implications of these findings, and the similarities in the differences between rootstocks of Gc, kl, kg and Huber values, are discussed with respect to rootstock water use and irrigation.
Scientific Publication
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