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Phytoparasitica
Shtienberg, D., Dept. of Plant Pathology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Oppenheim, D., Dept. of Plant Pathology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Herzog, Z., Dept. of Plant Pathology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Zilberstaine, M., Dept. of Plant Pathology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Kritzman, G., Dept. of Plant Pathology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
The pear production area in Israel is 1500 ha, most of which (ca 1200 ha) is located in the northern part of the country. Fire blight (caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al.) was first observed in Israel in that region (in 1985) and the disease has prevailed there since then. In a comprehensive survey conducted in Israel in 1996-1999, data were collected and observations were made yearly in one-third to one-half of the pear production area. The aim was to document the prevalence and intensity of fire blight in commercial orchards and to use the data to evaluate the efficacy of management measures employed for its suppression. Regionwise, a severe fire blight epidemic developed in 1996, moderate epidemics developed in 1998 and 1999, and a mild epidemic developed in 1997. The intensity of fire blight in the preceding season in a specific orchard was more influential on current season severity in a season with a mild epidemic than in a season with a moderate epidemic. Analysis of disease onset records and weather data revealed that only a few (1-3) infection episodes occurred in individual orchards each year. Comparison of fire blight intensity in orchard-plots treated before green tip with copper hydroxide with nontreated plots revealed that the treatment had no effect on disease intensity during bloom. The efficacy of bactericide sprays applied during bloom was not related to the number of sprays applied but to the timing of spraying. Adequate control was achieved in orchard-plots sprayed soon before or after the occurrence of infection episodes.
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Fire blight of pears in Israel: Infection, prevalence, intensity and efficacy of management actions
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Shtienberg, D., Dept. of Plant Pathology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Oppenheim, D., Dept. of Plant Pathology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Herzog, Z., Dept. of Plant Pathology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Zilberstaine, M., Dept. of Plant Pathology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Kritzman, G., Dept. of Plant Pathology, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Fire blight of pears in Israel: Infection, prevalence, intensity and efficacy of management actions
The pear production area in Israel is 1500 ha, most of which (ca 1200 ha) is located in the northern part of the country. Fire blight (caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al.) was first observed in Israel in that region (in 1985) and the disease has prevailed there since then. In a comprehensive survey conducted in Israel in 1996-1999, data were collected and observations were made yearly in one-third to one-half of the pear production area. The aim was to document the prevalence and intensity of fire blight in commercial orchards and to use the data to evaluate the efficacy of management measures employed for its suppression. Regionwise, a severe fire blight epidemic developed in 1996, moderate epidemics developed in 1998 and 1999, and a mild epidemic developed in 1997. The intensity of fire blight in the preceding season in a specific orchard was more influential on current season severity in a season with a mild epidemic than in a season with a moderate epidemic. Analysis of disease onset records and weather data revealed that only a few (1-3) infection episodes occurred in individual orchards each year. Comparison of fire blight intensity in orchard-plots treated before green tip with copper hydroxide with nontreated plots revealed that the treatment had no effect on disease intensity during bloom. The efficacy of bactericide sprays applied during bloom was not related to the number of sprays applied but to the timing of spraying. Adequate control was achieved in orchard-plots sprayed soon before or after the occurrence of infection episodes.
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