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Sexual Plant Reproduction
Vaknin, Y., Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Fac. of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel, Department of Botany, George S. Wise Fac. of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Yom Tov, Y., Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Fac. of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Eisikowitch, D., Department of Botany, George S. Wise Fac. of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
The flowering biology and pollination ecology of Loranthus acaciae was studied at Hazeva in the northern Arava Valley in Israel. Flowers at anthesis had red anthers, a red stigma and a green corolla which turned red as a postfloral phenomenon. Their flowering period was approximately 10 months long (from mid-June until mid-April) during which time two main flowering patterns were distinguished. Some plants flowered twice a year, with separate summer and winter flowering periods: other plants flowered continously, with two peaks, one in the summer and one in the winter. Several significant differences between summer and winter flowering and fruiting were found: (1) the summer flowering period was shorter than that of winter, (2) flowering synchrony between individual plants was lower in summer than in winter, (3) in summer the plants produced a larger proportion of female flowers, whereas in winter most of the plants produced a larger proportion of hermaphrodites, (4) in summer a limited number of plants produced smaller flowers while the majority produced normal-sized flowers, whereas in winter the entire population produced only normal-sized flowers, and (5) fruit set percentage was lower in summer than in winter. L. acaciae was found to be self-compatible, but, since it was not spontaneously self- pollinated, it showed high dependence on pollinator activity. In summer the flowers were visited by a wide spectrum of pollinators, both birds and insects, while in winter flowers were visited almost exclusively by the orange-tufted sunbird (Nectarinia osea osea, Nectariniidae). These seasonal changes in flowering characteristics and pollinator activity could explain why reproductive success is higher in winter than in summer.
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Flowering seasonality and flower characteristics of Loranthus acaciae zucc. (Loranthaceae): Implications for advertisement and bird-pollination
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Vaknin, Y., Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Fac. of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel, Department of Botany, George S. Wise Fac. of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Yom Tov, Y., Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Fac. of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Eisikowitch, D., Department of Botany, George S. Wise Fac. of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Flowering seasonality and flower characteristics of Loranthus acaciae zucc. (Loranthaceae): Implications for advertisement and bird-pollination
The flowering biology and pollination ecology of Loranthus acaciae was studied at Hazeva in the northern Arava Valley in Israel. Flowers at anthesis had red anthers, a red stigma and a green corolla which turned red as a postfloral phenomenon. Their flowering period was approximately 10 months long (from mid-June until mid-April) during which time two main flowering patterns were distinguished. Some plants flowered twice a year, with separate summer and winter flowering periods: other plants flowered continously, with two peaks, one in the summer and one in the winter. Several significant differences between summer and winter flowering and fruiting were found: (1) the summer flowering period was shorter than that of winter, (2) flowering synchrony between individual plants was lower in summer than in winter, (3) in summer the plants produced a larger proportion of female flowers, whereas in winter most of the plants produced a larger proportion of hermaphrodites, (4) in summer a limited number of plants produced smaller flowers while the majority produced normal-sized flowers, whereas in winter the entire population produced only normal-sized flowers, and (5) fruit set percentage was lower in summer than in winter. L. acaciae was found to be self-compatible, but, since it was not spontaneously self- pollinated, it showed high dependence on pollinator activity. In summer the flowers were visited by a wide spectrum of pollinators, both birds and insects, while in winter flowers were visited almost exclusively by the orange-tufted sunbird (Nectarinia osea osea, Nectariniidae). These seasonal changes in flowering characteristics and pollinator activity could explain why reproductive success is higher in winter than in summer.
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