Annals of Applied Biology
DROBY, S., Department of Plant Pathology, University of California,Riverside, California, United States
COFFEY, M.D., Department of Plant Pathology, University of California,Riverside, California, United States
The enhanced biodegradation of metalaxyl was studied in tobacco, citrus, avocado and corn soils. The most rapid degradation of metalaxyl occurred in a tobacco soil in which the half‐life (50% degradation) of metalaxyl was 6 days. The main breakdown product of metalaxyl in all soils was the acid metabolite. Ring labelled [14C]metalaxyl incubated for 4 wk in 6 soils demonstrated a low rate of 14CO2 evolution ranging from 2.1% to 11.3% which was unrelated to the biodegradation properties of the soil. A relationship between the concentration of metalaxyl and the subsequent rate of biodegradation was found in the tobacco soils. Higher concentrations of metalaxyl resulted in faster biodegradation rates. A single exposure of tobacco and corn soils to metalaxyl (100 μg/ml or 200 μg/g dry weight of soil) significantly increased their subsequent capacity to degrade the fungicide. Addition of the fungicide thiram or the antibiotics streptomycin and chloramphenicol to an avocado soil resulted in 75% and 51% inhibition of metalaxyl degradation, respectively. A combination of the fungicide and antibiotics resulted in 89% inhibition. The results indicate that enhanced microbial degradation of metalaxyl can occur in a wide range of soils. Under experimental conditions using soil solutions or soil systems, a single application of the fungicide may trigger this event. A wide range of fungi and bacteria appear to take part in degrading metalaxyl. Copyright © 1991, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
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Biodegradation process and the nature of metabolism of metalaxyl in soil
118
DROBY, S., Department of Plant Pathology, University of California,Riverside, California, United States
COFFEY, M.D., Department of Plant Pathology, University of California,Riverside, California, United States
Biodegradation process and the nature of metabolism of metalaxyl in soil
The enhanced biodegradation of metalaxyl was studied in tobacco, citrus, avocado and corn soils. The most rapid degradation of metalaxyl occurred in a tobacco soil in which the half‐life (50% degradation) of metalaxyl was 6 days. The main breakdown product of metalaxyl in all soils was the acid metabolite. Ring labelled [14C]metalaxyl incubated for 4 wk in 6 soils demonstrated a low rate of 14CO2 evolution ranging from 2.1% to 11.3% which was unrelated to the biodegradation properties of the soil. A relationship between the concentration of metalaxyl and the subsequent rate of biodegradation was found in the tobacco soils. Higher concentrations of metalaxyl resulted in faster biodegradation rates. A single exposure of tobacco and corn soils to metalaxyl (100 μg/ml or 200 μg/g dry weight of soil) significantly increased their subsequent capacity to degrade the fungicide. Addition of the fungicide thiram or the antibiotics streptomycin and chloramphenicol to an avocado soil resulted in 75% and 51% inhibition of metalaxyl degradation, respectively. A combination of the fungicide and antibiotics resulted in 89% inhibition. The results indicate that enhanced microbial degradation of metalaxyl can occur in a wide range of soils. Under experimental conditions using soil solutions or soil systems, a single application of the fungicide may trigger this event. A wide range of fungi and bacteria appear to take part in degrading metalaxyl. Copyright © 1991, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved
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