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Poultry Science
Cecil, H.C.
Bitman, J.
Svoboda, J.A.
Thompson, M.J.
Six branched and straight chain secondary or tertiary amines with chain lengths of 12 to 18 carbons and two azasteroids, 25-aza-5 alpha-cholestane and 25-azacoprostane, were fed to mature White Leghorn hens, and their effectiveness was compared with 20,25-diazacholesterol dihydrochloride (SC-12937), an azasteroid known to lower egg cholesterol. Feed consumption, body weight, egg production, egg and plasma cholesterol and desmosterol, and plasma total lipid were measured. The 6 amines were fed at 200 ppm, and only the C12 branched chain amine N,N,3,711-pentamethyldodecanamine reduced plasma and egg cholesterol with a concomitant increase in desmosterol. After 4 weeks, plasma desmosterol was 0, 13, 60, and 75% of total sterol for control, 200 ppm C12 branched chain amine, 5 ppm diazacholesterol, and 5 ppm azacholestane, respectively. Egg production was severely reduced to 6 and 0% by feeding 5 ppm azacholestane for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, and to 69 and 36% by feeding 5 ppm diazacholesterol. After 4 weeks egg cholesterol was 79 and 36% of the total sterol for the 200 ppm C12 branched chain amine and 5 ppm diazacholesterol, respectively. Concomitant increases in desmosterol accompanied all reductions in cholesterol. The depletion and repletion rates of egg cholesterol were measured in a subsequent experiment. After 2-1/2 weeks of feeding the test substances, egg cholesterol was reduced with concomitant increases in desmosterol. Egg cholesterol was 100, 71, and 50% of the total egg sterol for control, 200 ppm, and 400 ppm C12 branched chain amine, respectively: 58, 13, and 3% for .1, .5, and 1.0 ppm azacholestane; 28, 29, and 18% for 1, 2.5, and 5 ppm azacholesterol; and 23% for 1 ppm azacoprostane. The experimental diets were then withdrawn, and egg cholesterol repletion was studied biweekly. Egg cholesterol was repleted to 100% of the total sterol after withdrawal times of 2 weeks for C12 branched chain amine, 8 weeks for azacoprpostane, 14 to 16 weeks for diazacholesterol, 10 to 16 weeks for the lower levels of azacholestane, and longer than 16 weeks for 1 ppm azacholestane. The increase in desmosterol accompaning the demonstrated reduction in egg cholesterol, particularly with azasteroids, causes one to question the usefulness of this approach to lower cholesterol.
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Effects of branched and straight chain amines and azasteroids on blood and egg cholesterol of White Leghorn chickens.
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Cecil, H.C.
Bitman, J.
Svoboda, J.A.
Thompson, M.J.
Effects of branched and straight chain amines and azasteroids on blood and egg cholesterol of White Leghorn chickens.
Six branched and straight chain secondary or tertiary amines with chain lengths of 12 to 18 carbons and two azasteroids, 25-aza-5 alpha-cholestane and 25-azacoprostane, were fed to mature White Leghorn hens, and their effectiveness was compared with 20,25-diazacholesterol dihydrochloride (SC-12937), an azasteroid known to lower egg cholesterol. Feed consumption, body weight, egg production, egg and plasma cholesterol and desmosterol, and plasma total lipid were measured. The 6 amines were fed at 200 ppm, and only the C12 branched chain amine N,N,3,711-pentamethyldodecanamine reduced plasma and egg cholesterol with a concomitant increase in desmosterol. After 4 weeks, plasma desmosterol was 0, 13, 60, and 75% of total sterol for control, 200 ppm C12 branched chain amine, 5 ppm diazacholesterol, and 5 ppm azacholestane, respectively. Egg production was severely reduced to 6 and 0% by feeding 5 ppm azacholestane for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, and to 69 and 36% by feeding 5 ppm diazacholesterol. After 4 weeks egg cholesterol was 79 and 36% of the total sterol for the 200 ppm C12 branched chain amine and 5 ppm diazacholesterol, respectively. Concomitant increases in desmosterol accompanied all reductions in cholesterol. The depletion and repletion rates of egg cholesterol were measured in a subsequent experiment. After 2-1/2 weeks of feeding the test substances, egg cholesterol was reduced with concomitant increases in desmosterol. Egg cholesterol was 100, 71, and 50% of the total egg sterol for control, 200 ppm, and 400 ppm C12 branched chain amine, respectively: 58, 13, and 3% for .1, .5, and 1.0 ppm azacholestane; 28, 29, and 18% for 1, 2.5, and 5 ppm azacholesterol; and 23% for 1 ppm azacoprostane. The experimental diets were then withdrawn, and egg cholesterol repletion was studied biweekly. Egg cholesterol was repleted to 100% of the total sterol after withdrawal times of 2 weeks for C12 branched chain amine, 8 weeks for azacoprpostane, 14 to 16 weeks for diazacholesterol, 10 to 16 weeks for the lower levels of azacholestane, and longer than 16 weeks for 1 ppm azacholestane. The increase in desmosterol accompaning the demonstrated reduction in egg cholesterol, particularly with azasteroids, causes one to question the usefulness of this approach to lower cholesterol.
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