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Kolton, M., Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel, Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel, Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Harel, Y.M., Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Pasternak, Z., Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Graber, E.R., Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Elad, Y., Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Cytryn, E., Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Adding biochar to soil has environmental and agricultural potential due to its long-term carbon sequestration capacity and its ability to improve crop productivity. Recent studies have demonstrated that soil-applied biochar promotes the systemic resistance of plants to several prominent foliar pathogens. One potential mechanism for this phenomenon is root-associated microbial elicitors whose presence is somehow augmented in the biochar-amended soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of biochar amendment on the root-associated bacterial community composition of mature sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants. Molecular fingerprinting (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed a clear differentiation between the root-associated bacterial community structures of biochar-amended and control plants. The pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons from the rhizoplane of both treatments generated a total of 20,142 sequences, 92 to 95% of which were affiliated with the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The relative abundance of members of the Bacteroidetes phylum increased from 12 to 30% as a result of biochar amendment, while that of the Proteobacteria decreased from 71 to 47%. The Bacteroidetes-affiliated Flavobacterium was the strongest biochar-induced genus. The relative abundance of this group increased from 4.2% of total rootassociated operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in control samples to 19.6% in biochar-amended samples. Additional biochar-induced genera included chitin and cellulose degraders (Chitinophaga and Cellvibrio, respectively) and aromatic compound degraders (Hydrogenophaga and Dechloromonas). We hypothesize that these biochar-augmented genera may be at least partially responsible for the beneficial effect of biochar amendment on plant growth and viability. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.
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Impact of biochar application to soil on the root-associated bacterial community structure of fully developed greenhouse pepper plants
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Kolton, M., Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel, Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel, Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Harel, Y.M., Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Pasternak, Z., Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Graber, E.R., Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Elad, Y., Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Cytryn, E., Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Impact of biochar application to soil on the root-associated bacterial community structure of fully developed greenhouse pepper plants
Adding biochar to soil has environmental and agricultural potential due to its long-term carbon sequestration capacity and its ability to improve crop productivity. Recent studies have demonstrated that soil-applied biochar promotes the systemic resistance of plants to several prominent foliar pathogens. One potential mechanism for this phenomenon is root-associated microbial elicitors whose presence is somehow augmented in the biochar-amended soils. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of biochar amendment on the root-associated bacterial community composition of mature sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants. Molecular fingerprinting (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed a clear differentiation between the root-associated bacterial community structures of biochar-amended and control plants. The pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons from the rhizoplane of both treatments generated a total of 20,142 sequences, 92 to 95% of which were affiliated with the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The relative abundance of members of the Bacteroidetes phylum increased from 12 to 30% as a result of biochar amendment, while that of the Proteobacteria decreased from 71 to 47%. The Bacteroidetes-affiliated Flavobacterium was the strongest biochar-induced genus. The relative abundance of this group increased from 4.2% of total rootassociated operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in control samples to 19.6% in biochar-amended samples. Additional biochar-induced genera included chitin and cellulose degraders (Chitinophaga and Cellvibrio, respectively) and aromatic compound degraders (Hydrogenophaga and Dechloromonas). We hypothesize that these biochar-augmented genera may be at least partially responsible for the beneficial effect of biochar amendment on plant growth and viability. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.
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