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Kol-Maimon, H., Department of Entomology, Volcani Center (ARO), Bet Dagan, Israel
Ghanim, M., Department of Entomology, Volcani Center (ARO), Bet Dagan, Israel
Franco, J.C., Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia de Biossistemas, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Mendel, Z., Department of Entomology, Volcani Center (ARO), Bet Dagan, Israel
Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species - the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. © 2014 Kol-Maimon et al.
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Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae)
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Kol-Maimon, H., Department of Entomology, Volcani Center (ARO), Bet Dagan, Israel
Ghanim, M., Department of Entomology, Volcani Center (ARO), Bet Dagan, Israel
Franco, J.C., Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia de Biossistemas, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Mendel, Z., Department of Entomology, Volcani Center (ARO), Bet Dagan, Israel
Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae)
Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species - the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. © 2014 Kol-Maimon et al.
Scientific Publication