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Levin, E., Department of Postharvest Science, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Ballester, A.R., Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Avda. Agustin Escardino, Paterna, Valencia, Spain
Raphael, G., Department of Postharvest Science, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Feigenberg, O., Department of Postharvest Science, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Liu, Y., School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China
Norelli, J., Appalachian Fruit Research Station, USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, WV, United States
Gonzalez-Candelas, L., Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Avda. Agustin Escardino, Paterna, Valencia, Spain
Ma, J., Appalachian Fruit Research Station, USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, WV, United States
Dardick, C., Appalachian Fruit Research Station, USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, WV, United States
Wisniewski, M., Appalachian Fruit Research Station, USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, WV, United States
Droby, S., Department of Postharvest Science, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
P. expansum is regarded as one of the most important postharvest rots of apple fruit and is also of great concern to fruit processing industries. Elucidating the pathogenicity mechanism of this pathogen is of utmost importance for the development of effective and safe management strategies. Although, many studies on modification of the host environment by the pathogen were done, its interactions with fruit during the early stages of infection and the virulence factors that mediate pathogenicity have not been fully defined. Effectors carrying LysM domain have been identified in numerous pathogenic fungi and their role in the first stages of infection has been established. In this study, we identified 18 LysM genes in the P. expansum genome. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that P. expansum LysM proteins belong to a clade of fungal-specific LysM. Eleven of the discovered LysM genes were found to have secretory pathway signal peptide, among them, 4 (PeLysM1 PeLysM2, PeLysM3 and PeLysM4) were found to be highly expressed during the infection and development of decay of apple fruit. Effect of targeted deletion of the four putative PeLysM effectors on the growth and pathogenicity was studied. Possible interactions of PeLysM with host proteins was investigated using the yeast-two-hybrid system. © 2017, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
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Identification and characterization of LysM effectors in Penicillium expansum
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Levin, E., Department of Postharvest Science, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Ballester, A.R., Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Avda. Agustin Escardino, Paterna, Valencia, Spain
Raphael, G., Department of Postharvest Science, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Feigenberg, O., Department of Postharvest Science, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Liu, Y., School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China
Norelli, J., Appalachian Fruit Research Station, USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, WV, United States
Gonzalez-Candelas, L., Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Avda. Agustin Escardino, Paterna, Valencia, Spain
Ma, J., Appalachian Fruit Research Station, USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, WV, United States
Dardick, C., Appalachian Fruit Research Station, USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, WV, United States
Wisniewski, M., Appalachian Fruit Research Station, USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, WV, United States
Droby, S., Department of Postharvest Science, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Identification and characterization of LysM effectors in Penicillium expansum
P. expansum is regarded as one of the most important postharvest rots of apple fruit and is also of great concern to fruit processing industries. Elucidating the pathogenicity mechanism of this pathogen is of utmost importance for the development of effective and safe management strategies. Although, many studies on modification of the host environment by the pathogen were done, its interactions with fruit during the early stages of infection and the virulence factors that mediate pathogenicity have not been fully defined. Effectors carrying LysM domain have been identified in numerous pathogenic fungi and their role in the first stages of infection has been established. In this study, we identified 18 LysM genes in the P. expansum genome. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that P. expansum LysM proteins belong to a clade of fungal-specific LysM. Eleven of the discovered LysM genes were found to have secretory pathway signal peptide, among them, 4 (PeLysM1 PeLysM2, PeLysM3 and PeLysM4) were found to be highly expressed during the infection and development of decay of apple fruit. Effect of targeted deletion of the four putative PeLysM effectors on the growth and pathogenicity was studied. Possible interactions of PeLysM with host proteins was investigated using the yeast-two-hybrid system. © 2017, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
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