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Journal of Functional Foods
Elmann, A., Department of Food Science, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, POB 6 Bet Dagan, 50250 Rishon Lezion, Israel
Mordechay, S., Department of Food Science, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, POB 6 Bet Dagan, 50250 Rishon Lezion, Israel
Rindner, M., Department of Food Science, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, POB 6 Bet Dagan, 50250 Rishon Lezion, Israel
Ravid, U., Department of Aromatic, Medicinal and Spice Crops, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Israel
Microglial cells are major immune cells in the brain, and their activation is involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Activated microglial cells secrete proinflammatory factors including nitric oxide (NO), which is an important mediator of neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death. In the present study, we demonstrated that geranium oil inhibited NO production, as well as the expression of the proinflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in primary cultures of activated microglial cells. When tested at their natural relative concentrations in the oil, none of the major constituents of the oil could inhibit NO production. However, at higher concentrations, citronellol exhibited an inhibitory activity. The results suggest a possible synergistic interaction between these components. Thus, geranium oil might be beneficial in the prevention/treatment of neurodegenerative diseases where neuroinflammation is part of the pathophysiology. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of geranium oil in microglial cells
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Elmann, A., Department of Food Science, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, POB 6 Bet Dagan, 50250 Rishon Lezion, Israel
Mordechay, S., Department of Food Science, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, POB 6 Bet Dagan, 50250 Rishon Lezion, Israel
Rindner, M., Department of Food Science, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, POB 6 Bet Dagan, 50250 Rishon Lezion, Israel
Ravid, U., Department of Aromatic, Medicinal and Spice Crops, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Israel
Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of geranium oil in microglial cells
Microglial cells are major immune cells in the brain, and their activation is involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Activated microglial cells secrete proinflammatory factors including nitric oxide (NO), which is an important mediator of neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death. In the present study, we demonstrated that geranium oil inhibited NO production, as well as the expression of the proinflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in primary cultures of activated microglial cells. When tested at their natural relative concentrations in the oil, none of the major constituents of the oil could inhibit NO production. However, at higher concentrations, citronellol exhibited an inhibitory activity. The results suggest a possible synergistic interaction between these components. Thus, geranium oil might be beneficial in the prevention/treatment of neurodegenerative diseases where neuroinflammation is part of the pathophysiology. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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