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Gal-On, A., Dept. of Virology, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan, Israel
Shiboleth, Y.M., Dept. of Virology, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan, Israel
Cross-protection is a natural phenomenon whereby tolerance or resistance of a plant to one virus strain is induced by systemic infection with a second. Eighty years have passed since the phenomenon was first demonstrated by McKinney (1929), who observed that in tobacco plants systemically infected with a light green strain of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV: Genus Tobamovirus), the appearance of yellow symptoms after re inoculation with a TMV yellow mosaic strain was repressed. In contrast, a mild dark green strain did not repress these yellow symptoms upon challenge. Later Salaman (1933) demonstrated that an avirulent strain of Potato virus X (PVX: Genus Potexvirus) provided protection against superinfection with a virulent strain of PVX in potato. Webb et al. (1952) showed that cross protection against the phloem-limited virus, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV: Genus Polerovirus) could be achieved by infection with the aphid vector and not only by sap inoculation. The first demonstrations of virus-disease control by mild strains were done with Citrus tristeza virus (CTV: Genus Closterovirus) (Grant and Costa, 1951), and Cacao swollen shoot disease (Posnette and Todd, 1955). For many years serological and cross-protection tests were used as routine methods to determine strain interrelationships in plant viruses (Latorre and Flores, 1985). Apparently, cross-protection seemed to be a general phenomenon with viruses for which distinct strains could be found (Fulton, 1986; Sherwood, 1987; Fraser, 1998). © 2006 Springer. All rights reserved.
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Cross-protection
Gal-On, A., Dept. of Virology, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan, Israel
Shiboleth, Y.M., Dept. of Virology, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan, Israel
Cross-protection
Cross-protection is a natural phenomenon whereby tolerance or resistance of a plant to one virus strain is induced by systemic infection with a second. Eighty years have passed since the phenomenon was first demonstrated by McKinney (1929), who observed that in tobacco plants systemically infected with a light green strain of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV: Genus Tobamovirus), the appearance of yellow symptoms after re inoculation with a TMV yellow mosaic strain was repressed. In contrast, a mild dark green strain did not repress these yellow symptoms upon challenge. Later Salaman (1933) demonstrated that an avirulent strain of Potato virus X (PVX: Genus Potexvirus) provided protection against superinfection with a virulent strain of PVX in potato. Webb et al. (1952) showed that cross protection against the phloem-limited virus, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV: Genus Polerovirus) could be achieved by infection with the aphid vector and not only by sap inoculation. The first demonstrations of virus-disease control by mild strains were done with Citrus tristeza virus (CTV: Genus Closterovirus) (Grant and Costa, 1951), and Cacao swollen shoot disease (Posnette and Todd, 1955). For many years serological and cross-protection tests were used as routine methods to determine strain interrelationships in plant viruses (Latorre and Flores, 1985). Apparently, cross-protection seemed to be a general phenomenon with viruses for which distinct strains could be found (Fulton, 1986; Sherwood, 1987; Fraser, 1998). © 2006 Springer. All rights reserved.
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