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Praz, C.R., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Bourras, S., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Zeng, F., Institute of Plant Protection and Soil Science, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China, Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops in Central China, Wuhan, China, College of Life Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
Sánchez-Martín, J., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Menardo, F., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Xue, M., Institute of Plant Protection and Soil Science, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China, Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops in Central China, Wuhan, China, College of Life Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
Yang, L., Institute of Plant Protection and Soil Science, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China, Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops in Central China, Wuhan, China, College of Life Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
Roffler, S., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Böni, R., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Herren, G., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
McNally, K.E., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Ben-David, R., Institute of Plant Science, ARO-Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Parlange, F., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Oberhaensli, S., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Flückiger, S., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Schäfer, L.K., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Wicker, T., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Yu, D., Institute of Plant Protection and Soil Science, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China, Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops in Central China, Wuhan, China, College of Life Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
Keller, B., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
There is a large diversity of genetically defined resistance genes in bread wheat against the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis (B. g.) f. sp. tritici. Many confer race-specific resistance to this pathogen, but until now only the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm3a2/f2 that is recognized by Pm3a/f was known molecularly. We performed map-based cloning and genome-wide association studies to isolate a candidate for the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm2. We then used transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana to demonstrate specific and strong recognition of AvrPm2 by Pm2. The virulent AvrPm2 allele arose from a conserved 12 kb deletion, while there is no protein sequence diversity in the gene pool of avirulent B. g. tritici isolates. We found one polymorphic AvrPm2 allele in B. g. triticale and one orthologue in B. g. secalis and both are recognized by Pm2. AvrPm2 belongs to a small gene family encoding structurally conserved RNase-like effectors, including Avra13 from B. g. hordei, the cognate Avr of the barley resistance gene Mla13. These results demonstrate the conservation of functional avirulence genes in two cereal powdery mildews specialized on different hosts, thus providing a possible explanation for successful introgression of resistance genes from rye or other grass relatives to wheat. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust
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AvrPm2 encodes an RNase-like avirulence effector which is conserved in the two different specialized forms of wheat and rye powdery mildew fungus
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Praz, C.R., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Bourras, S., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Zeng, F., Institute of Plant Protection and Soil Science, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China, Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops in Central China, Wuhan, China, College of Life Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
Sánchez-Martín, J., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Menardo, F., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Xue, M., Institute of Plant Protection and Soil Science, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China, Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops in Central China, Wuhan, China, College of Life Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
Yang, L., Institute of Plant Protection and Soil Science, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China, Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops in Central China, Wuhan, China, College of Life Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
Roffler, S., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Böni, R., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Herren, G., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
McNally, K.E., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Ben-David, R., Institute of Plant Science, ARO-Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Parlange, F., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Oberhaensli, S., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Flückiger, S., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Schäfer, L.K., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Wicker, T., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Yu, D., Institute of Plant Protection and Soil Science, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China, Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Crops in Central China, Wuhan, China, College of Life Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
Keller, B., Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
AvrPm2 encodes an RNase-like avirulence effector which is conserved in the two different specialized forms of wheat and rye powdery mildew fungus
There is a large diversity of genetically defined resistance genes in bread wheat against the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis (B. g.) f. sp. tritici. Many confer race-specific resistance to this pathogen, but until now only the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm3a2/f2 that is recognized by Pm3a/f was known molecularly. We performed map-based cloning and genome-wide association studies to isolate a candidate for the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm2. We then used transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana to demonstrate specific and strong recognition of AvrPm2 by Pm2. The virulent AvrPm2 allele arose from a conserved 12 kb deletion, while there is no protein sequence diversity in the gene pool of avirulent B. g. tritici isolates. We found one polymorphic AvrPm2 allele in B. g. triticale and one orthologue in B. g. secalis and both are recognized by Pm2. AvrPm2 belongs to a small gene family encoding structurally conserved RNase-like effectors, including Avra13 from B. g. hordei, the cognate Avr of the barley resistance gene Mla13. These results demonstrate the conservation of functional avirulence genes in two cereal powdery mildews specialized on different hosts, thus providing a possible explanation for successful introgression of resistance genes from rye or other grass relatives to wheat. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust
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