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Bonfil, D.J., Dept. Fld. Crops, Vegetables Genet., Hebrew University of Jerusalem, POB 12, 76100 Rehovot, Israel, Agricultural Research Organization, Gilat Experiment Station, Department of Field Crops, M.P. Negev 2, 85280, Israel
Czosnek, H., Dept. Fld. Crops, Vegetables Genet., Hebrew University of Jerusalem, POB 12, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
Kafkafi, U., Dept. Fld. Crops, Vegetables Genet., Hebrew University of Jerusalem, POB 12, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
Wheat seed storage protein fingerprint is used to determine the gluten protein pattern in studies aimed at improving flour quality. Wild wheat with high seed protein content is used extensively in wheat breeding programs. Although the wild wheat growth and protein content may be influenced by environmental conditions, the gluten-protein pattern is generally considered as indicative of a genotype, without the superimposition of environmental influences. The effects of soil type, habitat, and deficiencies of N, P, K and S on seed storage protein composition were examined in nine accessions of wild wheat (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) and three varieties (two T. aestivum and one T. durum). Soil from ten natural habitats of the wild wheat that had not previously received any fertilizers or manures was sampled and used to grow wheat in a greenhouse. Seed storage protein composition was characterized by SDS-PAGE. Although deficiencies in soil nutrient caused variations in the seed storage proteins, the genotype was the main factor determining the seed storage protein composition. Seed storage protein composition of genotypes varied when grown under different mineral nutrient conditions. Only one genotype was stable showing almost identical protein patterns under all growing conditions studied without any qualitative change in fingerprint pattern. In the other genotypes, as well as the cultivars, the seed storage protein was affected at least to some extent by the soil. The 'soil effect' is summarized in terms of three main quantitative changes in the seeds: 1 - the relative amounts of the high-molecular-weight proteins; 2 - the relative amounts of proteins in the range of 45 and 65 kD; 3 - the percentage distribution of the HMW glutenin and other groups of seed storage proteins. The soils induced also qualitative differences in the composition of seed storage proteins, mostly in those of 45-65 kD. These differences were observed whenever a deficiency of S, N, P, K or Mg was identified. Therefore, in breeding programs that use seed storage protein fingerprints of wild wheat germplasms should be exercise caution when the germplasms selected from wild habitats.
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Changes in wheat seed storage protein fingerprint due to soil mineral content
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Bonfil, D.J., Dept. Fld. Crops, Vegetables Genet., Hebrew University of Jerusalem, POB 12, 76100 Rehovot, Israel, Agricultural Research Organization, Gilat Experiment Station, Department of Field Crops, M.P. Negev 2, 85280, Israel
Czosnek, H., Dept. Fld. Crops, Vegetables Genet., Hebrew University of Jerusalem, POB 12, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
Kafkafi, U., Dept. Fld. Crops, Vegetables Genet., Hebrew University of Jerusalem, POB 12, 76100 Rehovot, Israel
Changes in wheat seed storage protein fingerprint due to soil mineral content
Wheat seed storage protein fingerprint is used to determine the gluten protein pattern in studies aimed at improving flour quality. Wild wheat with high seed protein content is used extensively in wheat breeding programs. Although the wild wheat growth and protein content may be influenced by environmental conditions, the gluten-protein pattern is generally considered as indicative of a genotype, without the superimposition of environmental influences. The effects of soil type, habitat, and deficiencies of N, P, K and S on seed storage protein composition were examined in nine accessions of wild wheat (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) and three varieties (two T. aestivum and one T. durum). Soil from ten natural habitats of the wild wheat that had not previously received any fertilizers or manures was sampled and used to grow wheat in a greenhouse. Seed storage protein composition was characterized by SDS-PAGE. Although deficiencies in soil nutrient caused variations in the seed storage proteins, the genotype was the main factor determining the seed storage protein composition. Seed storage protein composition of genotypes varied when grown under different mineral nutrient conditions. Only one genotype was stable showing almost identical protein patterns under all growing conditions studied without any qualitative change in fingerprint pattern. In the other genotypes, as well as the cultivars, the seed storage protein was affected at least to some extent by the soil. The 'soil effect' is summarized in terms of three main quantitative changes in the seeds: 1 - the relative amounts of the high-molecular-weight proteins; 2 - the relative amounts of proteins in the range of 45 and 65 kD; 3 - the percentage distribution of the HMW glutenin and other groups of seed storage proteins. The soils induced also qualitative differences in the composition of seed storage proteins, mostly in those of 45-65 kD. These differences were observed whenever a deficiency of S, N, P, K or Mg was identified. Therefore, in breeding programs that use seed storage protein fingerprints of wild wheat germplasms should be exercise caution when the germplasms selected from wild habitats.
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