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The role of biological control in managing parasitic weeds
Year:
2007
Source of publication :
Crop Protection
Authors :
Hershenhorn, Joseph
;
.
Volume :
26
Co-Authors:
Sauerborn, J., Department of Agroecology, Institute for Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany
Müller-Stöver, D., Department of Agroecology, Institute for Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany
Hershenhorn, J., Section of Weed Research, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, ARO, P. O. Box 1021, Ramat Yishay, 30095, Israel
Facilitators :
From page:
246
To page:
254
(
Total pages:
9
)
Abstract:
In contrast to normal weeds, parasitic plants inflict fitness costs by withdrawing water, minerals, and photosynthates from the host. Host-derived material is mainly transferred through straw-like intrusions into the host's vascular tissue. Theoretically, resources are unlimited for parasitic weeds unless the host is killed. Frequent occurrence of host crops in agro-ecosystems results in favourable reproduction conditions for parasitic angiosperms, which makes them competitive species. Since parasitic weeds have similar nutritional requirements as their hosts, the damage inflicted by a parasitic plant is often directly proportional to its biomass. Agriculturally important genera are Cuscuta, Alectra, Orobanche, and Striga attacking principal crops like cereals, legumes, and vegetables. Cuscuta species occur nearly worldwide, while the geographical distribution of the economically important species of Alectra and Striga is centred in Africa, but they also occur in parts of India and China. Crop damaging Orobanche species are found in the Mediterranean region, in South and East Europe, and West Asia. Both Orobanche and Striga are likely to spread with host distribution, density, and climatic change. Contrary to normal weeds, most of the damage to the host is done before the parasitic weed emerges above the soil. Therefore, control methods should focus on reducing soil seed bank and interfere with the parasite's early developmental stages. Because of the close interconnection between the parasitic weed and its host, herbicidal control is difficult since herbicides cannot selectively distinguish between the species. The high specificity of many organisms (fungi, bacteria, arthropods), feeding exclusively on selected hosts, in our case parasitic weeds, can be considered an advantage because these organisms may work as biocontrol agents where other weed control options have failed. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Note:
Related Files :
biological control
crop
Cuscuta
Far East
fungi
Fusarium
India
Mediterranean Region
Mediterranean Sea
Orobanche
Striga
Show More
Related Content
More details
DOI :
10.1016/j.cropro.2005.12.012
Article number:
Affiliations:
Database:
Scopus
Publication Type:
article
;
.
Language:
English
Editors' remarks:
ID:
28595
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
17/04/2018 00:40
Scientific Publication
The role of biological control in managing parasitic weeds
26
Sauerborn, J., Department of Agroecology, Institute for Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany
Müller-Stöver, D., Department of Agroecology, Institute for Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany
Hershenhorn, J., Section of Weed Research, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, ARO, P. O. Box 1021, Ramat Yishay, 30095, Israel
The role of biological control in managing parasitic weeds
In contrast to normal weeds, parasitic plants inflict fitness costs by withdrawing water, minerals, and photosynthates from the host. Host-derived material is mainly transferred through straw-like intrusions into the host's vascular tissue. Theoretically, resources are unlimited for parasitic weeds unless the host is killed. Frequent occurrence of host crops in agro-ecosystems results in favourable reproduction conditions for parasitic angiosperms, which makes them competitive species. Since parasitic weeds have similar nutritional requirements as their hosts, the damage inflicted by a parasitic plant is often directly proportional to its biomass. Agriculturally important genera are Cuscuta, Alectra, Orobanche, and Striga attacking principal crops like cereals, legumes, and vegetables. Cuscuta species occur nearly worldwide, while the geographical distribution of the economically important species of Alectra and Striga is centred in Africa, but they also occur in parts of India and China. Crop damaging Orobanche species are found in the Mediterranean region, in South and East Europe, and West Asia. Both Orobanche and Striga are likely to spread with host distribution, density, and climatic change. Contrary to normal weeds, most of the damage to the host is done before the parasitic weed emerges above the soil. Therefore, control methods should focus on reducing soil seed bank and interfere with the parasite's early developmental stages. Because of the close interconnection between the parasitic weed and its host, herbicidal control is difficult since herbicides cannot selectively distinguish between the species. The high specificity of many organisms (fungi, bacteria, arthropods), feeding exclusively on selected hosts, in our case parasitic weeds, can be considered an advantage because these organisms may work as biocontrol agents where other weed control options have failed. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scientific Publication
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