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Molecular, biochemical and anatomical factors governing ethanol fermentation metabolism and accumulation of off-flavors in mandarins and grapefruit -2007
Year:
2007
Source of publication :
Postharvest Biology and Technology
Authors :
Porat, Ron
;
.
Volume :
46
Co-Authors:
Shi, J.X., The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Goldschmidt, E.E., The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Goren, R., The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Porat, R., Department of Postharvest Science of Fresh Produce, ARO, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Facilitators :
From page:
242
To page:
251
(
Total pages:
10
)
Abstract:
During postharvest storage or after exposure to anaerobic atmospheres, mandarins develop off-flavors much more rapidly than other citrus varieties, and the occurrence of these off-flavors is associated with increases in juice ethanol and acetaldehyde (AA) levels. However, the reasons why mandarins accumulate more off-flavor volatiles than other varieties are not yet understood. We studied the roles of various molecular, biochemical and anatomical factors in governing ethanolic fermentation in 'Murcott' mandarins and 'Star Ruby' grapefruit under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and found that exposure to N2 atmospheres for 24 h increased accumulation of ethanol and AA in the juice and peel of mandarins much more than in grapefruit. However, exposure to anaerobic atmospheres increased pyruvate kinase (PK), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) transcript levels in both cultivars by similar amounts, suggesting that post-transcriptional and perhaps other regulatory mechanisms must be involved in governing ethanol fermentation rates. Exposure to anaerobic atmospheres increased PDC enzyme activity in both mandarins and grapefruit but had only minor effects on ADH activity. Nevertheless, mandarins had much higher (3.8-fold) levels of ADH enzyme activity in their juice vesicles than grapefruit. Anatomical observations revealed that although the total thickness of the peel (comprising the albedo, the white inner layer and the flavedo, the colored outer layer) was greater in grapefruit, the dense flavedo layer was considerably thicker in mandarins. In mandarins, the flavedo also contained more oil glands than that of grapefruit, and the albedo was thinner but more condensed. Accordingly, gas diffusion tests indicated that the peel of mandarins was less permeable to gases, and especially to ethanol vapors, than that of grapefruit. Overall, we conclude that mandarins accumulate larger amounts of AA and ethanol after harvest than grapefruit do because of higher ADH enzyme activity levels in the juice, and because their peel is less permeable to gases. The latter characteristic prevents the release of the produced off-flavor volatiles from mandarins, which results in buildup of ethanol and AA in the internal atmosphere of the fruit and the consequent perception of off-flavors. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Note:
Related Files :
Anaerobic stress
Citrus
Citrus x paradisi
Ethanol fermentation
grapefruits
Mandarin
Off-flavors
Show More
Related Content
More details
DOI :
10.1016/j.postharvbio.2007.05.009
Article number:
0
Affiliations:
Database:
Scopus
Publication Type:
article
;
.
Language:
English
Editors' remarks:
ID:
29399
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
17/04/2018 00:46
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Scientific Publication
Molecular, biochemical and anatomical factors governing ethanol fermentation metabolism and accumulation of off-flavors in mandarins and grapefruit -2007
46
Shi, J.X., The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Goldschmidt, E.E., The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Goren, R., The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel
Porat, R., Department of Postharvest Science of Fresh Produce, ARO, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel
Molecular, biochemical and anatomical factors governing ethanol fermentation metabolism and accumulation of off-flavors in mandarins and grapefruit
During postharvest storage or after exposure to anaerobic atmospheres, mandarins develop off-flavors much more rapidly than other citrus varieties, and the occurrence of these off-flavors is associated with increases in juice ethanol and acetaldehyde (AA) levels. However, the reasons why mandarins accumulate more off-flavor volatiles than other varieties are not yet understood. We studied the roles of various molecular, biochemical and anatomical factors in governing ethanolic fermentation in 'Murcott' mandarins and 'Star Ruby' grapefruit under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and found that exposure to N2 atmospheres for 24 h increased accumulation of ethanol and AA in the juice and peel of mandarins much more than in grapefruit. However, exposure to anaerobic atmospheres increased pyruvate kinase (PK), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) transcript levels in both cultivars by similar amounts, suggesting that post-transcriptional and perhaps other regulatory mechanisms must be involved in governing ethanol fermentation rates. Exposure to anaerobic atmospheres increased PDC enzyme activity in both mandarins and grapefruit but had only minor effects on ADH activity. Nevertheless, mandarins had much higher (3.8-fold) levels of ADH enzyme activity in their juice vesicles than grapefruit. Anatomical observations revealed that although the total thickness of the peel (comprising the albedo, the white inner layer and the flavedo, the colored outer layer) was greater in grapefruit, the dense flavedo layer was considerably thicker in mandarins. In mandarins, the flavedo also contained more oil glands than that of grapefruit, and the albedo was thinner but more condensed. Accordingly, gas diffusion tests indicated that the peel of mandarins was less permeable to gases, and especially to ethanol vapors, than that of grapefruit. Overall, we conclude that mandarins accumulate larger amounts of AA and ethanol after harvest than grapefruit do because of higher ADH enzyme activity levels in the juice, and because their peel is less permeable to gases. The latter characteristic prevents the release of the produced off-flavor volatiles from mandarins, which results in buildup of ethanol and AA in the internal atmosphere of the fruit and the consequent perception of off-flavors. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Scientific Publication
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