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Role of wetting rate and rain energy in seal formation and erosion
Year:
2003
Source of publication :
Soil Science
Authors :
Levy, Guy
;
.
Mamedov, Amrakh
;
.
Shainberg, Isaac
;
.
Volume :
168
Co-Authors:

Shainberg, I., Inst. of Soil, Water/Environ. Sci., Agric. Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Mamedov, A.I., Inst. of Soil, Water/Environ. Sci., Agric. Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel, Inst. of Soil Sci. and Agrichemistry, Academy of Science, M. Arif str. 5, Baku 370073, Azerbaijan
Levy, G.J., Inst. of Soil, Water/Environ. Sci., Agric. Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel

Facilitators :
From page:
54
To page:
62
(
Total pages:
9
)
Abstract:
Seal formation, runoff, and erosion are controlled by soil texture, rain kinetic energy (KE), and wetting rate (WR) of soils aggregates. The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance of WR and rain KE in seal formation, runoff production, and erosion, in soils varying in their clay and silt content, using a drip-type rain simulator. Four soils, ranging in clay content from 22.5 to 61.2%, were packed in 0.2 × 0.4-m trays, pre-wetted at WRs of 2, 8, or 64 mm h-1, and exposed to 60 mm of simulated distilled water (DW) rainfall with two KEs (8 and 15.9 kJ m-3). Runoff and erosion increased as rain KE and WR increased; however, the magnitude of change depended on clay content. In the loam (22.5% clay), the effect of rain KE on seal formation and runoff was significant, and the effect of WR was small. Conversely, in the clay soils (51.3 and 61.2% clay), the effect of WR on seal formation was significant and the effect of rain KE was negligible. In the sandy clay soil (38.1% clay), the effects of both WR and rain KE on seal formation and runoff were significant. The effect of rain energy on soil erosion was significant in all soils. Since water erosion is the product of sediment detachment and transport of the particles by overland flow, increase in the impact of rain drops increases both soil detachment and transport capacity and increases soil erosion in all soils. In clay soils, erosion also increased with the increase in WR. Disintegration of the aggregates by fast WR combined with detachment by rain impact increased erosion from clay soils. The conclusion reached is that for seal formation and runoff production, rain KE predominates in medium- and light-textured soils and WR predominates in heavy-textured soils. Conversely, for soil erosion from laboratory trays, detachment by rain KE is essential in all soils.
Note:
Related Files :
Aggregate stability
Clay
Clay content
Infiltration
Infiltration rate
Phocidae
Rain detachment
runoff
sealing
soil erosion
Wetting
Show More
Related Content
More details
DOI :
10.1097/00010694-200301000-00007
Article number:
0
Affiliations:
Database:
Scopus
Publication Type:
article
;
.
Language:
English
Editors' remarks:
ID:
29620
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
17/04/2018 00:48
Scientific Publication
Role of wetting rate and rain energy in seal formation and erosion
168

Shainberg, I., Inst. of Soil, Water/Environ. Sci., Agric. Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Mamedov, A.I., Inst. of Soil, Water/Environ. Sci., Agric. Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel, Inst. of Soil Sci. and Agrichemistry, Academy of Science, M. Arif str. 5, Baku 370073, Azerbaijan
Levy, G.J., Inst. of Soil, Water/Environ. Sci., Agric. Research Organization (ARO), Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel

Role of wetting rate and rain energy in seal formation and erosion
Seal formation, runoff, and erosion are controlled by soil texture, rain kinetic energy (KE), and wetting rate (WR) of soils aggregates. The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance of WR and rain KE in seal formation, runoff production, and erosion, in soils varying in their clay and silt content, using a drip-type rain simulator. Four soils, ranging in clay content from 22.5 to 61.2%, were packed in 0.2 × 0.4-m trays, pre-wetted at WRs of 2, 8, or 64 mm h-1, and exposed to 60 mm of simulated distilled water (DW) rainfall with two KEs (8 and 15.9 kJ m-3). Runoff and erosion increased as rain KE and WR increased; however, the magnitude of change depended on clay content. In the loam (22.5% clay), the effect of rain KE on seal formation and runoff was significant, and the effect of WR was small. Conversely, in the clay soils (51.3 and 61.2% clay), the effect of WR on seal formation was significant and the effect of rain KE was negligible. In the sandy clay soil (38.1% clay), the effects of both WR and rain KE on seal formation and runoff were significant. The effect of rain energy on soil erosion was significant in all soils. Since water erosion is the product of sediment detachment and transport of the particles by overland flow, increase in the impact of rain drops increases both soil detachment and transport capacity and increases soil erosion in all soils. In clay soils, erosion also increased with the increase in WR. Disintegration of the aggregates by fast WR combined with detachment by rain impact increased erosion from clay soils. The conclusion reached is that for seal formation and runoff production, rain KE predominates in medium- and light-textured soils and WR predominates in heavy-textured soils. Conversely, for soil erosion from laboratory trays, detachment by rain KE is essential in all soils.
Scientific Publication
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