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Various competitive interactions explain niche separation in crop-dwelling web spiders
Year:
2016
Source of publication :
Oikos
Authors :
Weintraub, Phyllis
;
.
Volume :
125
Co-Authors:
Opatovsky, I., Albert Katz International School for Desert Studies, Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, Israel, Regional Agricultural Research and Development Center, Southern Branch (Besor), Israel
Gavish-Regev, E., Gavish-Regev, The National Natural History Collections, The Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
Weintraub, P.G., Agricultural Research Organization, Dept of Entomology, Gilat Research Center, Israel
Lubin, Y., Mitrani Dept of Desert Ecology, Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, Israel
Facilitators :
From page:
1586
To page:
1596
(
Total pages:
11
)
Abstract:
Competition for resources is a major organizing principle in communities of organisms that share similar ecological niches. Niche separation by means of exploitation or interference competition was investigated in two taxa of crop-inhabiting spiders that overlap in microhabitat use and have similar web design. Competition for prey and web sites was tested in microcosm experiments with the most common species that build sheet-webs: Enoplognatha gemina (Theridiidae) and Alioranus pastoralis (Linyphiidae). A field survey over the crop season provided data on spatial and temporal dispersion of Enoplognatha spp. (Theridiidae) and linyphiid spiders (Linyphiidae) and on availability of prey over the season. In the microcosm experiments, both taxa took springtails as prey, but only Enoplognatha fed on aphids. Differences in diet, however, could not be attributed to either exploitative or interference competition. Spatial separation of websites was attained by vertical displacement of webs in the vegetation (Enoplognatha) and by avoidance of patches occupied by conspecific or heterospecific individuals (linyphiids). In the field, densities of linyphiids and Enoplognatha were correlated negatively and webs were over-dispersed relative to a random distribution. Both taxa colonized the field at the start of the season; linyphiids colonized as adults, quickly reproduced, and had a second adult peak; Enoplognatha matured in the middle of the season and their numbers remained fairly constant over the season. The combined experimental manipulations and field data suggest that niche separation occurs at different scales. The hypothesis of competition for websites was partially supported, while prey preference (or tolerance) and temporal differences in life history stages also may explain the negative correlations between densities of the two taxa. © 2016 The Authors
Note:
Related Files :
Aphididae
Araneae
Collembola
Enoplognatha
Linyphiidae
Theridiidae
Show More
Related Content
More details
DOI :
10.1111/oik.03056
Article number:
Affiliations:
Database:
Scopus
Publication Type:
article
;
.
Language:
English
Editors' remarks:
ID:
30741
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
17/04/2018 00:56
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Scientific Publication
Various competitive interactions explain niche separation in crop-dwelling web spiders
125
Opatovsky, I., Albert Katz International School for Desert Studies, Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, Israel, Regional Agricultural Research and Development Center, Southern Branch (Besor), Israel
Gavish-Regev, E., Gavish-Regev, The National Natural History Collections, The Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
Weintraub, P.G., Agricultural Research Organization, Dept of Entomology, Gilat Research Center, Israel
Lubin, Y., Mitrani Dept of Desert Ecology, Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Midreshet Ben-Gurion, Israel
Various competitive interactions explain niche separation in crop-dwelling web spiders
Competition for resources is a major organizing principle in communities of organisms that share similar ecological niches. Niche separation by means of exploitation or interference competition was investigated in two taxa of crop-inhabiting spiders that overlap in microhabitat use and have similar web design. Competition for prey and web sites was tested in microcosm experiments with the most common species that build sheet-webs: Enoplognatha gemina (Theridiidae) and Alioranus pastoralis (Linyphiidae). A field survey over the crop season provided data on spatial and temporal dispersion of Enoplognatha spp. (Theridiidae) and linyphiid spiders (Linyphiidae) and on availability of prey over the season. In the microcosm experiments, both taxa took springtails as prey, but only Enoplognatha fed on aphids. Differences in diet, however, could not be attributed to either exploitative or interference competition. Spatial separation of websites was attained by vertical displacement of webs in the vegetation (Enoplognatha) and by avoidance of patches occupied by conspecific or heterospecific individuals (linyphiids). In the field, densities of linyphiids and Enoplognatha were correlated negatively and webs were over-dispersed relative to a random distribution. Both taxa colonized the field at the start of the season; linyphiids colonized as adults, quickly reproduced, and had a second adult peak; Enoplognatha matured in the middle of the season and their numbers remained fairly constant over the season. The combined experimental manipulations and field data suggest that niche separation occurs at different scales. The hypothesis of competition for websites was partially supported, while prey preference (or tolerance) and temporal differences in life history stages also may explain the negative correlations between densities of the two taxa. © 2016 The Authors
Scientific Publication
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