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Delayed and enhanced biodegradation of soil‐applied diphenamid, carbendazim, and aldicarb
Year:
1993
Authors :
Aharonson, Nadav
;
.
Volume :
22
Co-Authors:
Aharonson, N., Department of Chemistry of Pesticides and Natural Products, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
Katan, J., Department of Chemistry of Pesticides and Natural Products, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
Facilitators :
From page:
451
To page:
466
(
Total pages:
16
)
Abstract:
Recent studies have demonstrated that interaction between various agrochemicals and soil microorganisms may either slow down or enhance processes of degradation. Soil disinfestation is employed for the control of soil‐borne pathogens and weeds. Soil application of such broad‐spectrum biocides, as well as some more selective chemicals, has a strong effect on microbial activity, which may result in drastic reduction in the rate of degradation of pesticides applied to such treated soils. Application of pesticides to previously disinfested soils may extend their biological activity, which in the case of herbicides could cause phytotoxic damage to the next crop. In contrast, repeated application of the same or structurally related pesticides may result in a selective buildup of microbial populations capable of degrading the pesticide at much faster rates. Cases of accelerated degradation were reported for pesticides belonging to various chemical groups. Studies were conducted to evaluate the mechanisms of accelerated degradation. For several pesticides it has been shown that soil fungi are involved in their normal degradation, but not in their accelerated degradation. The shift in the rate of degradation of pesticides such as diphenamid, benomyl, and S‐ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate, in soils that have acquired accelerated degradation, seems to be associated with the buildup of populations of bacterial degraders. Moreover, it has been shown that for the herbicide diphenamid, accelerated degradation is apparently linked to the induction of an oxidative demethylation process in soil bacteria, which might be analogous to the development of resistance in pests. Contrary to studies demonstrating accelerated degradation of the systemic insecticide aldicarb and accumulation of aldicarb sulfoxide in non‐history soils, our work has shown that repeated application of this carbamate at several locations in Israel over a 10‐year period did not induce accelerated degradation. It should be pointed out that in the Israeli soils there was only minimal formation of aldicarb sulfoxide. These studies were performed in soils with a pH ranging from 7.8 to 8.3, which is higher than the pH reported for soils where accelerated degradation was detected. © 1993 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1993 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
Note:
Related Files :
Biodegradation
diphenylacetic acid
enzymes
metabolism
Microbiology
pesticides
soil microorganisms
Show More
Related Content
More details
DOI :
10.1002/arch.940220312
Article number:
Affiliations:
Database:
Scopus
Publication Type:
article
;
.
Language:
English
Editors' remarks:
ID:
30996
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
17/04/2018 00:58
Scientific Publication
Delayed and enhanced biodegradation of soil‐applied diphenamid, carbendazim, and aldicarb
22
Aharonson, N., Department of Chemistry of Pesticides and Natural Products, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
Katan, J., Department of Chemistry of Pesticides and Natural Products, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
Delayed and enhanced biodegradation of soil‐applied diphenamid, carbendazim, and aldicarb
Recent studies have demonstrated that interaction between various agrochemicals and soil microorganisms may either slow down or enhance processes of degradation. Soil disinfestation is employed for the control of soil‐borne pathogens and weeds. Soil application of such broad‐spectrum biocides, as well as some more selective chemicals, has a strong effect on microbial activity, which may result in drastic reduction in the rate of degradation of pesticides applied to such treated soils. Application of pesticides to previously disinfested soils may extend their biological activity, which in the case of herbicides could cause phytotoxic damage to the next crop. In contrast, repeated application of the same or structurally related pesticides may result in a selective buildup of microbial populations capable of degrading the pesticide at much faster rates. Cases of accelerated degradation were reported for pesticides belonging to various chemical groups. Studies were conducted to evaluate the mechanisms of accelerated degradation. For several pesticides it has been shown that soil fungi are involved in their normal degradation, but not in their accelerated degradation. The shift in the rate of degradation of pesticides such as diphenamid, benomyl, and S‐ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate, in soils that have acquired accelerated degradation, seems to be associated with the buildup of populations of bacterial degraders. Moreover, it has been shown that for the herbicide diphenamid, accelerated degradation is apparently linked to the induction of an oxidative demethylation process in soil bacteria, which might be analogous to the development of resistance in pests. Contrary to studies demonstrating accelerated degradation of the systemic insecticide aldicarb and accumulation of aldicarb sulfoxide in non‐history soils, our work has shown that repeated application of this carbamate at several locations in Israel over a 10‐year period did not induce accelerated degradation. It should be pointed out that in the Israeli soils there was only minimal formation of aldicarb sulfoxide. These studies were performed in soils with a pH ranging from 7.8 to 8.3, which is higher than the pH reported for soils where accelerated degradation was detected. © 1993 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1993 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
Scientific Publication
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