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A comparison between the gross energy requirements of different irrigation systems in Israel
Year:
1986
Source of publication :
Irrigation Science
Authors :
Stibbe, Ehud
;
.
Volume :
7
Co-Authors:
Stibbe, E., Institute of Soils and Water, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
Facilitators :
From page:
213
To page:
223
(
Total pages:
11
)
Abstract:
The energy requirements for manufacturing irrigation equipment were evaluated from a survey of a number of factories and workshops in Israel. Based on the results obtained and the life span of the components, the annual amortization of energy by high-pressure (overhead sprinklers), medium-pressure (undertree sprinklers and sprayers) and low-pressure (drip lines) irrigation systems was calculated for citrus orchards and cotton crops as irrigated in Israel. For citrus orchards a low-pressure sprayer system amortized 1.5 GJ ha-1 y-1 more energy than a medium-pressure undertree sprinkler system, and 2.7 GJ ha-1 y-1 more than a high-pressure, overhead sprinkler system. For irrigating a cotton crop, the low-pressure drip system used 6.8 GJ ha-1 y-1 more embodied energy than the movable, high-pressure overhead sprinkler system. The annual energy invested in irrigation water conveyance through the National Water Carrier, at the current hydraulic pressure of 500 kPa at the farm gate, varies for a cotton crop from 20 to 45 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the northern region and from 70 to 215 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the southern region of Israel, when irrigated with 4,050 m3 ha-1. For a citrus orchard this energy input varies from 60 to 75 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the central region and from 120 to 375 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the southern regions, when irrigated with 7,200 m3 ha-1. For obtaining the same yield in the south as in the north, the energy input for water conveyance has to be increased by 12% in the case of a cotton crop and by 7% in the case of a citrus orchard. Thus, in the north the annual energy amortization of a dripline irrigation system amounts to one third of that expended on water conveyance but in the south amounts to one-eighteenth or less, indicating the large regional dependency of energy inputs for irrigation. Calculations show that the reduction in energy requirement for water conveyance needed by irrigation systems operating at lower pressures compensates for their higher energy losses in system amortization. For example, in citrus irrigation the substitution of medium-pressure undertree sprinkler systems for high-pressure overhead sprinkler systems was calculated to save 8% of the total energy expenditure for water conveyance to the farm gate. This would amount to a saving of 7 GJ ha-1 y-1 for citrus in the central region and of 8 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the south. For cotton the substitution of low pressure dripline systems for high-pressure overhead sprinkler systems could save 16% of the total energy expenditure for pressurized water conveyance. This would amount to a saving of 8 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the northern region increasing to 10 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the south, taking into account a higher irrigation water requirement. © 1986 Springer-Verlag.
Note:
Related Files :
GROSS ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
irrigation
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Related Content
More details
DOI :
10.1007/BF00344076
Article number:
0
Affiliations:
Database:
Publication Type:
article
;
.
Language:
English
Editors' remarks:
ID:
31313
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
17/04/2018 01:01
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Scientific Publication
A comparison between the gross energy requirements of different irrigation systems in Israel
7
Stibbe, E., Institute of Soils and Water, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
A comparison between the gross energy requirements of different irrigation systems in Israel
The energy requirements for manufacturing irrigation equipment were evaluated from a survey of a number of factories and workshops in Israel. Based on the results obtained and the life span of the components, the annual amortization of energy by high-pressure (overhead sprinklers), medium-pressure (undertree sprinklers and sprayers) and low-pressure (drip lines) irrigation systems was calculated for citrus orchards and cotton crops as irrigated in Israel. For citrus orchards a low-pressure sprayer system amortized 1.5 GJ ha-1 y-1 more energy than a medium-pressure undertree sprinkler system, and 2.7 GJ ha-1 y-1 more than a high-pressure, overhead sprinkler system. For irrigating a cotton crop, the low-pressure drip system used 6.8 GJ ha-1 y-1 more embodied energy than the movable, high-pressure overhead sprinkler system. The annual energy invested in irrigation water conveyance through the National Water Carrier, at the current hydraulic pressure of 500 kPa at the farm gate, varies for a cotton crop from 20 to 45 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the northern region and from 70 to 215 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the southern region of Israel, when irrigated with 4,050 m3 ha-1. For a citrus orchard this energy input varies from 60 to 75 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the central region and from 120 to 375 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the southern regions, when irrigated with 7,200 m3 ha-1. For obtaining the same yield in the south as in the north, the energy input for water conveyance has to be increased by 12% in the case of a cotton crop and by 7% in the case of a citrus orchard. Thus, in the north the annual energy amortization of a dripline irrigation system amounts to one third of that expended on water conveyance but in the south amounts to one-eighteenth or less, indicating the large regional dependency of energy inputs for irrigation. Calculations show that the reduction in energy requirement for water conveyance needed by irrigation systems operating at lower pressures compensates for their higher energy losses in system amortization. For example, in citrus irrigation the substitution of medium-pressure undertree sprinkler systems for high-pressure overhead sprinkler systems was calculated to save 8% of the total energy expenditure for water conveyance to the farm gate. This would amount to a saving of 7 GJ ha-1 y-1 for citrus in the central region and of 8 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the south. For cotton the substitution of low pressure dripline systems for high-pressure overhead sprinkler systems could save 16% of the total energy expenditure for pressurized water conveyance. This would amount to a saving of 8 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the northern region increasing to 10 GJ ha-1 y-1 in the south, taking into account a higher irrigation water requirement. © 1986 Springer-Verlag.
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