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Seasonal and diurnal evaporation from a deep hypersaline lake: The Dead Sea as a case study
Year:
2018
Source of publication :
Journal of Hydrology
Authors :
Assouline, Shmuel
;
.
Tanny, Josef
;
.
Volume :
562
Co-Authors:

Hamdani, I., Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel, Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel;

Lensky, I.M., Department of Geography and Environment, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel;

Gertman, I., Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa, Israel;

Mor, Z., Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel, Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel;

Lensky, N.G., Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Facilitators :
From page:
155
To page:
167
(
Total pages:
13
)
Abstract:

Evaporation plays a major role in lake systems, as it affects the water, energy and solutes budgets. Water salinity reduces evaporation, and as a result affects the energy budget of the lake, including stored heat. In this study, we explore the seasonal and diurnal variations of evaporation and other energy fluxes over the Dead Sea, the deepest and saltiest hypersaline lake on Earth. We present two consecutive years observations using Eddy Covariance system, meteorological stations and a buoy station measuring the water column properties. These observations reveal the effects of synoptic and mesoscale atmospheric circulation on lake evaporation. The seasonal cycle of evaporation is characterized by two peaks. The summer evaporation peak is related to high radiation inputs. The winter peak stem from the high heat storage of the deep lake, with evaporation driven by high vapor pressure demand, combined with synoptic scale wind systems and thermal instability. In summer, the synoptic circulation is stable, providing a weak background wind velocity (Persian trough), hence, the dominant diurnal wind pattern is induced by the Mediterranean Sea Breeze (mesoscale circulation). The two years of eddy covariance measurements in the hypersaline Dead Sea, located in a hyperarid region, revealed annual evaporation rate of 1.13 ± 0.13 m yr−1. We explored several evaporation models versus the directly measured evaporation, and found that the most reliable is a mass transfer model, that was calibrated here for the Dead Sea. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Note:
Related Files :
eddy covariance
Heat storage
hydrostatic pressure
Lakes
meteorology
Net radiation
wind
Wind speed
Show More
Related Content
More details
DOI :
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.04.057
Article number:
0
Affiliations:

Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel; Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel; Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel; HIT – Holon Institute of Technology, Holon, Israel; Department of Geography and Environment, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel; Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa, Israel

Database:
Scopus
Publication Type:
article
;
.
Language:
English
Editors' remarks:
ID:
36649
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
15/08/2018 09:32
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Scientific Publication
Seasonal and diurnal evaporation from a deep hypersaline lake: The Dead Sea as a case study
562

Hamdani, I., Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel, Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel;

Lensky, I.M., Department of Geography and Environment, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel;

Gertman, I., Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa, Israel;

Mor, Z., Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel, Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel;

Lensky, N.G., Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel

Seasonal and diurnal evaporation from a deep hypersaline lake: The Dead Sea as a case study

Evaporation plays a major role in lake systems, as it affects the water, energy and solutes budgets. Water salinity reduces evaporation, and as a result affects the energy budget of the lake, including stored heat. In this study, we explore the seasonal and diurnal variations of evaporation and other energy fluxes over the Dead Sea, the deepest and saltiest hypersaline lake on Earth. We present two consecutive years observations using Eddy Covariance system, meteorological stations and a buoy station measuring the water column properties. These observations reveal the effects of synoptic and mesoscale atmospheric circulation on lake evaporation. The seasonal cycle of evaporation is characterized by two peaks. The summer evaporation peak is related to high radiation inputs. The winter peak stem from the high heat storage of the deep lake, with evaporation driven by high vapor pressure demand, combined with synoptic scale wind systems and thermal instability. In summer, the synoptic circulation is stable, providing a weak background wind velocity (Persian trough), hence, the dominant diurnal wind pattern is induced by the Mediterranean Sea Breeze (mesoscale circulation). The two years of eddy covariance measurements in the hypersaline Dead Sea, located in a hyperarid region, revealed annual evaporation rate of 1.13 ± 0.13 m yr−1. We explored several evaporation models versus the directly measured evaporation, and found that the most reliable is a mass transfer model, that was calibrated here for the Dead Sea. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Scientific Publication
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