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Toxicity of phenolic compounds to entomopathogenic nematodes: A case study with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora exposed to lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus) extracts and their chemical components
Year:
2019
Source of publication :
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Authors :
Glazer, Itamar
;
.
Landau, Serge Yan
;
.
Muklada, Hussein
;
.
Salame, Liora
;
.
Satheeja Santhi, Velayudhan
;
.
Volume :
160
Co-Authors:

Hassan Azaizeh , Manal Haj-Zaroubi, Safaa Awwad -The Institute of Applied Research (affiliated with University of Haifa), The Galilee Society, Shefa-Amr 20200, Israel

Facilitators :
From page:
43
To page:
53
(
Total pages:
11
)
Abstract:

Insects show adaptive plasticity by ingesting plant secondary compounds, such as phenolic compounds, that are noxious to parasites. This work examined whether exposure to phenolic compounds affects the development of insect parasitic nematodes. As a model system for parasitic life cycle, we used Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida; Heterorhabditiade) grown with Photorhabdita luminescens supplemented with different concentrations of plant phenolic extracts (0, 600, 1200, 2400 ppm): a crude ethanol extract of lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus) or lentisk extract fractionated along a scale of hydrophobicity with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate; and flavonoids (myricetin, catechin), flavanol-glycoside (rutin) or phenolic acids (chlorogenic and gallic acids). Resilience of the nematode to phenolic compounds was stage-dependent, with younger growth stages exhibiting less resilience than older growth stages (i.e., eggs < young juveniles < young hermaphrodites < infective juveniles < mature hermaphrodites). At high concentrations, all of the phenolic compounds studied were lethal to eggs and young juveniles. The nematodes were able to survive in the presence of medium and low concentrations of all studied compounds, but very few of those treatments allowed for reproduction beyond the infective juvenile stage and, at low concentrations, the crude 70% ethanol extract, chloroform and hexane extracts, and myricetin were associated with some impaired reproduction. The ethyl-acetate fraction and gallic acid were extremely lethal to the young stages and allowed almost no development beyond the infective juvenile stage. We conclude that exposure of infective juveniles to phenolics before they infect insects and post-infection exposure of other nematode developmental stages may affect the initiation of the infection, suggesting that the chemistry of dietary phenolics may limit H. bacteriophora’s infection of insects.

Note:

Related Files :
Development stages
gallic acid
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora
phenolic compounds
resilience
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Related Content
More details
DOI :
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2018.12.003
Article number:
0
Affiliations:
Database:
Scopus
Publication Type:
article
;
.
Language:
English
Editors' remarks:
ID:
38633
Last updated date:
02/03/2022 17:27
Creation date:
18/12/2018 11:43
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Scientific Publication
Toxicity of phenolic compounds to entomopathogenic nematodes: A case study with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora exposed to lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus) extracts and their chemical components
160

Hassan Azaizeh , Manal Haj-Zaroubi, Safaa Awwad -The Institute of Applied Research (affiliated with University of Haifa), The Galilee Society, Shefa-Amr 20200, Israel

Toxicity of phenolic compounds to entomopathogenic nematodes: A case study with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora exposed to lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus) extracts and their chemical components

Insects show adaptive plasticity by ingesting plant secondary compounds, such as phenolic compounds, that are noxious to parasites. This work examined whether exposure to phenolic compounds affects the development of insect parasitic nematodes. As a model system for parasitic life cycle, we used Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida; Heterorhabditiade) grown with Photorhabdita luminescens supplemented with different concentrations of plant phenolic extracts (0, 600, 1200, 2400 ppm): a crude ethanol extract of lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus) or lentisk extract fractionated along a scale of hydrophobicity with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate; and flavonoids (myricetin, catechin), flavanol-glycoside (rutin) or phenolic acids (chlorogenic and gallic acids). Resilience of the nematode to phenolic compounds was stage-dependent, with younger growth stages exhibiting less resilience than older growth stages (i.e., eggs < young juveniles < young hermaphrodites < infective juveniles < mature hermaphrodites). At high concentrations, all of the phenolic compounds studied were lethal to eggs and young juveniles. The nematodes were able to survive in the presence of medium and low concentrations of all studied compounds, but very few of those treatments allowed for reproduction beyond the infective juvenile stage and, at low concentrations, the crude 70% ethanol extract, chloroform and hexane extracts, and myricetin were associated with some impaired reproduction. The ethyl-acetate fraction and gallic acid were extremely lethal to the young stages and allowed almost no development beyond the infective juvenile stage. We conclude that exposure of infective juveniles to phenolics before they infect insects and post-infection exposure of other nematode developmental stages may affect the initiation of the infection, suggesting that the chemistry of dietary phenolics may limit H. bacteriophora’s infection of insects.

Scientific Publication
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