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Leitner, Gabriel

As other dairy products, camel milk and its products must comply with national and international quality and safety standards. Standards are basically divided into microbiological and physico‐chemical ones. There are yet no major proven differences between camel milk dairy products and those of any other dairy animal, thus the level of bacterial cleanliness and product safety applied for camel milk could not be lowered or disregarded.

The role of such proposed standards will be the assurance that standardized camel milk will not pose any health risk to the consumer. Pasteurization is the accepted technology to achieve this aim, and the assurance of a proper heat treatment is an inevitable step in establishing pasteurization schedule for camel milk. Nevertheless, pasteurization may not eradicate all pathogens. Therefore, it is mandatory to study, identify and monitor the bacteriological flora of incoming raw milk and post‐pasteurization milk. Finally, it is important to provide the authorities with suitable tools to assure that milk was properly pasteurized. Acceptable physico‐chemical standards to ascertain proper pasteurization must be developed. Alkaline phosphatase test (AP) is the acceptable mean to assure proper pasteurization for bovine milk. However, it seems that camel milk AP is heat stable and can not fulfill the role of an indicator. Other means to assure proper pasteurization of camel milk are being studied such as tests based on the inactivation of γ‐glutamyltransferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).

A following step would be the establishment of product identity and purity. This should include major milk constituents: water, fat, protein, lactose and minerals, as well as specific camel milk biochemicals. Steps towards achieving this goal have already started in various countries around the world.

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Standards for camel milk

Leitner, Gabriel

Standards for camel milk

As other dairy products, camel milk and its products must comply with national and international quality and safety standards. Standards are basically divided into microbiological and physico‐chemical ones. There are yet no major proven differences between camel milk dairy products and those of any other dairy animal, thus the level of bacterial cleanliness and product safety applied for camel milk could not be lowered or disregarded.

The role of such proposed standards will be the assurance that standardized camel milk will not pose any health risk to the consumer. Pasteurization is the accepted technology to achieve this aim, and the assurance of a proper heat treatment is an inevitable step in establishing pasteurization schedule for camel milk. Nevertheless, pasteurization may not eradicate all pathogens. Therefore, it is mandatory to study, identify and monitor the bacteriological flora of incoming raw milk and post‐pasteurization milk. Finally, it is important to provide the authorities with suitable tools to assure that milk was properly pasteurized. Acceptable physico‐chemical standards to ascertain proper pasteurization must be developed. Alkaline phosphatase test (AP) is the acceptable mean to assure proper pasteurization for bovine milk. However, it seems that camel milk AP is heat stable and can not fulfill the role of an indicator. Other means to assure proper pasteurization of camel milk are being studied such as tests based on the inactivation of γ‐glutamyltransferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).

A following step would be the establishment of product identity and purity. This should include major milk constituents: water, fat, protein, lactose and minerals, as well as specific camel milk biochemicals. Steps towards achieving this goal have already started in various countries around the world.

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