Advanced Search
Experimental Parasitology

Manal Haj-Zaroubi, Safaa Awwad, Alex Markovics, Hassan Azaizeh,

As gastro-intestinal nematodes (GINs) become increasingly resistant to chemical anthelmintics, and because consumers scrutinize chemical residues in animal products, the use of herbal anthelmintics and in particular, phenolic compounds, has become attractive. Most life stages of GINs cannot be grown in the lab as they are obligatory parasites, which limits our understanding of the effects of phenolic compounds on their parasitic stages of life. We hypothesized that a species phylogenetically close to GINs and grown in vitro, the insect-parasitic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida; Heterorhabditiade), when fed with Photorhabdus luminescens exposed to plant phenolics, can serve, as proxy for strongyles, in assessing the anthelmintic effects of phenolic compounds. We compared the development of H. bacteriophora infective juveniles (IJ) and the exsheathment rate of L3 larvae of the strongyle Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis when exposed to catechin, rutin, chlorogenic and gallic acids, and myricetin. Gallic acid had the highest impact in terms of IJ mortality but the highest impairment of IJ development to adulthood was imposed by myricetin. The studied compounds were not lethal to GINs stricto sensu but we consider that the practical implications of total exsheathment inhibition and mortality on GIN populations are similar. Catechin and rutin had similar effects on rhabditid and strongyles: they imposed ca. 90% lethality of IJs at concentrations higher than 1200 ppm and the remaining live IJs did not develop further, and they also totally inhibited strongyle L3 exsheathment in a dose-response fashion. Gallic acid was 100% lethal to IJs exposed above 300 ppm and chlorogenic acid caused 87% mortality above 1200 ppm, with no development for the surviving IJs but for all lower concentrations, all the IJs developed to adult stages. Likewise, gallic and chlorogenic acids did not affect the exsheatment of GIN L3 larvae. Therefore, a discrepancy between the effects of gallic and chlorogenic acids on the development of rhabditid IJs and exsheathment of GIN L3 larvae was found only when they were exposed to high concentrations. A dose-response of IJ lethality to myricetin was found, with no IJ development between 150 and 2400 ppm; but contrary to the other compounds, myricetin also impaired IJ development of IJs above 10 ppm in a dose-response manner and showed dose-responses in the L3 exsheathment. Apart for the high rates of lethality imposed on IJs by gallic and chlorogenic acids at high concentration, these results suggest that H. bacteriophora fed P. luminescens exposed to phenolics shows potential to serve as model in studies of the anthelmintic effects of phenolics in GIN.

Powered by ClearMash Solutions Ltd -
Volcani treasures
About
Terms of use
Can an entomopathogenic nematode serve, as proxy for strongyles, in assessing the anthelmintic effects of phenolic compounds?
209

Manal Haj-Zaroubi, Safaa Awwad, Alex Markovics, Hassan Azaizeh,

Can an entomopathogenic nematode serve, as proxy for strongyles, in assessing the anthelmintic effects of phenolic compounds? .

As gastro-intestinal nematodes (GINs) become increasingly resistant to chemical anthelmintics, and because consumers scrutinize chemical residues in animal products, the use of herbal anthelmintics and in particular, phenolic compounds, has become attractive. Most life stages of GINs cannot be grown in the lab as they are obligatory parasites, which limits our understanding of the effects of phenolic compounds on their parasitic stages of life. We hypothesized that a species phylogenetically close to GINs and grown in vitro, the insect-parasitic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida; Heterorhabditiade), when fed with Photorhabdus luminescens exposed to plant phenolics, can serve, as proxy for strongyles, in assessing the anthelmintic effects of phenolic compounds. We compared the development of H. bacteriophora infective juveniles (IJ) and the exsheathment rate of L3 larvae of the strongyle Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis when exposed to catechin, rutin, chlorogenic and gallic acids, and myricetin. Gallic acid had the highest impact in terms of IJ mortality but the highest impairment of IJ development to adulthood was imposed by myricetin. The studied compounds were not lethal to GINs stricto sensu but we consider that the practical implications of total exsheathment inhibition and mortality on GIN populations are similar. Catechin and rutin had similar effects on rhabditid and strongyles: they imposed ca. 90% lethality of IJs at concentrations higher than 1200 ppm and the remaining live IJs did not develop further, and they also totally inhibited strongyle L3 exsheathment in a dose-response fashion. Gallic acid was 100% lethal to IJs exposed above 300 ppm and chlorogenic acid caused 87% mortality above 1200 ppm, with no development for the surviving IJs but for all lower concentrations, all the IJs developed to adult stages. Likewise, gallic and chlorogenic acids did not affect the exsheatment of GIN L3 larvae. Therefore, a discrepancy between the effects of gallic and chlorogenic acids on the development of rhabditid IJs and exsheathment of GIN L3 larvae was found only when they were exposed to high concentrations. A dose-response of IJ lethality to myricetin was found, with no IJ development between 150 and 2400 ppm; but contrary to the other compounds, myricetin also impaired IJ development of IJs above 10 ppm in a dose-response manner and showed dose-responses in the L3 exsheathment. Apart for the high rates of lethality imposed on IJs by gallic and chlorogenic acids at high concentration, these results suggest that H. bacteriophora fed P. luminescens exposed to phenolics shows potential to serve as model in studies of the anthelmintic effects of phenolics in GIN.

Scientific Publication
You may also be interested in