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Gram-negative bacteria outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are extracellularly released blebs, constantly detaching from the bacterial cell surface. Being ubiquitous among bacteria and diverse in content, OMVs have a plethora of functions: promoting virulence, mediating bacterial cell–cell communication, modulating host immune response, and more. Though most research on OMVs has been carried out on animal pathogens, production of OMVs by plant pathogenic bacteria is predicted to be similarly intrinsic to their biology. Recent studies in the field of plant–bacteria interactions have begun to unravel the roles of OMVs, showing their involvement in biofilm formation, virulence, and modulation of plant immunity. With a range of general to highly specialized roles, these structures can act as an adaptive toolbox during pathogenesis and stress. This Pearl will crystallize current OMV research with a special focus on the role OMVs play in plant–bacteria interactions.

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Bacterial outer membrane vesicles at the plant–pathogen interface
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Bacterial outer membrane vesicles at the plant–pathogen interface .

Gram-negative bacteria outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are extracellularly released blebs, constantly detaching from the bacterial cell surface. Being ubiquitous among bacteria and diverse in content, OMVs have a plethora of functions: promoting virulence, mediating bacterial cell–cell communication, modulating host immune response, and more. Though most research on OMVs has been carried out on animal pathogens, production of OMVs by plant pathogenic bacteria is predicted to be similarly intrinsic to their biology. Recent studies in the field of plant–bacteria interactions have begun to unravel the roles of OMVs, showing their involvement in biofilm formation, virulence, and modulation of plant immunity. With a range of general to highly specialized roles, these structures can act as an adaptive toolbox during pathogenesis and stress. This Pearl will crystallize current OMV research with a special focus on the role OMVs play in plant–bacteria interactions.

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