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Raban E. - The Agricultural Extension Service of Israel, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Bet Dagan, Israel.

BACKGROUND:

The full flavor of grape berries is determined by the interaction of sugars, acids, volatile compounds, and other berry properties, such as astringency. Sugars and acids are important for berry taste, whereas volatile compounds are important for the unique berry flavors, e.g., monoterpenes for the Muscat varieties.

RESULTS:

We explored the basis for 'fruity' flavor perception in table grapes. Samples were collected from 134 new table grape lines and commercial varieties and tested chemically for their volatile profiles and organoleptically by tasting panels. At the sensory level, flavor impression was strongly correlated with berry preference, whereas among 'fruity', 'neutral', 'herbaceous,' and 'Muscat', only the 'fruity' flavor was correlated with berry preference. At the chemical level, 114 volatile compounds were detected in the 81 breeding lines and cultivars examined, and grouped into 'core' and 'unique' categories. The typical berry flavor seemed to depend on the major volatile aldehydes - 1-hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal - accounting for up to an average 85% of the berry's core volatile concentration. We found four volatile compounds - α-bergamotene, geranyl formate, aristolene and α-penansinene - previously undetected, to our knowledge, in fresh grape berries.

CONCLUSIONS:

High 'fruity' flavor scores were related to three independent factors: (i) presence of unique volatile compounds, such as the sesquiterpene α-copaene, (ii) higher total concentration of volatile compounds, (iii) optimal maturity associated to high total soluble solids (TSS) levels, interacting with berry volatile composition. These combined sensory and analytical data on the flavor of table grapes improve our understanding of the complex interface between chemical and sensory perception in fruit.

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Insights into the chemosensory basis of flavor in table grapes
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Raban E. - The Agricultural Extension Service of Israel, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Bet Dagan, Israel.

Insights into the chemosensory basis of flavor in table grapes

BACKGROUND:

The full flavor of grape berries is determined by the interaction of sugars, acids, volatile compounds, and other berry properties, such as astringency. Sugars and acids are important for berry taste, whereas volatile compounds are important for the unique berry flavors, e.g., monoterpenes for the Muscat varieties.

RESULTS:

We explored the basis for 'fruity' flavor perception in table grapes. Samples were collected from 134 new table grape lines and commercial varieties and tested chemically for their volatile profiles and organoleptically by tasting panels. At the sensory level, flavor impression was strongly correlated with berry preference, whereas among 'fruity', 'neutral', 'herbaceous,' and 'Muscat', only the 'fruity' flavor was correlated with berry preference. At the chemical level, 114 volatile compounds were detected in the 81 breeding lines and cultivars examined, and grouped into 'core' and 'unique' categories. The typical berry flavor seemed to depend on the major volatile aldehydes - 1-hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal - accounting for up to an average 85% of the berry's core volatile concentration. We found four volatile compounds - α-bergamotene, geranyl formate, aristolene and α-penansinene - previously undetected, to our knowledge, in fresh grape berries.

CONCLUSIONS:

High 'fruity' flavor scores were related to three independent factors: (i) presence of unique volatile compounds, such as the sesquiterpene α-copaene, (ii) higher total concentration of volatile compounds, (iii) optimal maturity associated to high total soluble solids (TSS) levels, interacting with berry volatile composition. These combined sensory and analytical data on the flavor of table grapes improve our understanding of the complex interface between chemical and sensory perception in fruit.

Scientific Publication
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