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Zhang Z. - College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.
Zhang W. - College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.
Bi Y. - College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.
Han Y. - College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.
Zong Y. - College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.

Trichothecium roseum is a harmful postharvest fungus causing serious damage, together with the secretion of insidious mycotoxins, on apples, melons, and other important fruits. Cuminal, a predominant component of Cuminum cyminum essential oil has proven to successfully inhibit the growth of T. roseum in vitro and in vivo. Electron microscopic observations revealed cuminal exposure impaired the fungal morphology and ultrastructure, particularly the plasmalemma. Transcriptome and proteome analysis was used to investigate the responses of T. roseum to exposure of cuminal. In total, 2825 differentially expressed transcripts (1516 up and 1309 down) and 225 differentially expressed proteins (90 up and 135 down) were determined. Overall, notable parts of these differentially expressed genes functionally belong to subcellular localities of the membrane system and cytosol, along with ribosomes, mitochondria and peroxisomes. According to the localization analysis and the biological annotation of these genes, carbohydrate and lipids metabolism, redox homeostasis, and asexual reproduction were among the most enriched gene ontology (GO) terms. Biological pathway enrichment analysis showed that lipids and amino acid degradation, ATP-binding cassette transporters, membrane reconstitution, mRNA surveillance pathway and peroxisome were elevated, whereas secondary metabolite biosynthesis, cell cycle, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis were down regulated. Further integrated omics analysis showed that cuminal exposure first impaired the polarity of the cytoplasmic membrane and then triggered the reconstitution and dysfunction of fungal plasmalemma, resulting in handicapped nutrient procurement of the cells. Consequently, fungal cells showed starvation stress with limited carbohydrate metabolism, resulting a metabolic shift to catabolism of the cell's own components in response to the stress. Additionally, these predicaments brought about oxidative stress, which, in collaboration with the starvation, damaged certain critical organelles such as mitochondria. Such degeneration, accompanied by energy deficiency, suppressed the biosynthesis of essential proteins and inhibited fungal growth.

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Cuminal Inhibits Trichothecium roseum Growth by Triggering Cell Starvation: Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis
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Zhang Z. - College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.
Zhang W. - College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.
Bi Y. - College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.
Han Y. - College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.
Zong Y. - College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.
Cuminal Inhibits Trichothecium roseum Growth by Triggering Cell Starvation: Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis

Trichothecium roseum is a harmful postharvest fungus causing serious damage, together with the secretion of insidious mycotoxins, on apples, melons, and other important fruits. Cuminal, a predominant component of Cuminum cyminum essential oil has proven to successfully inhibit the growth of T. roseum in vitro and in vivo. Electron microscopic observations revealed cuminal exposure impaired the fungal morphology and ultrastructure, particularly the plasmalemma. Transcriptome and proteome analysis was used to investigate the responses of T. roseum to exposure of cuminal. In total, 2825 differentially expressed transcripts (1516 up and 1309 down) and 225 differentially expressed proteins (90 up and 135 down) were determined. Overall, notable parts of these differentially expressed genes functionally belong to subcellular localities of the membrane system and cytosol, along with ribosomes, mitochondria and peroxisomes. According to the localization analysis and the biological annotation of these genes, carbohydrate and lipids metabolism, redox homeostasis, and asexual reproduction were among the most enriched gene ontology (GO) terms. Biological pathway enrichment analysis showed that lipids and amino acid degradation, ATP-binding cassette transporters, membrane reconstitution, mRNA surveillance pathway and peroxisome were elevated, whereas secondary metabolite biosynthesis, cell cycle, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis were down regulated. Further integrated omics analysis showed that cuminal exposure first impaired the polarity of the cytoplasmic membrane and then triggered the reconstitution and dysfunction of fungal plasmalemma, resulting in handicapped nutrient procurement of the cells. Consequently, fungal cells showed starvation stress with limited carbohydrate metabolism, resulting a metabolic shift to catabolism of the cell's own components in response to the stress. Additionally, these predicaments brought about oxidative stress, which, in collaboration with the starvation, damaged certain critical organelles such as mitochondria. Such degeneration, accompanied by energy deficiency, suppressed the biosynthesis of essential proteins and inhibited fungal growth.

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