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Lal Gupta, C.  -  Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Volcani Research Center, Agriculture Research Organization, Rishon Lezion 7528809, Israel .

Rohit Kumar Tiwari - Department of Biosciences, Integral University, Lucknow 226026, UP, India

 

Antibiotic or antimicrobial resistance (AR) facilitated by the vertical and/or horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), is a serious global health challenge. While traditionally associated with pathogens in clinical environments, it is becoming increasingly clear that non-clinical environments may also be reservoirs of ARGs. The recent improvements in rapid and affordable next generation sequencing technologies along with sophisticated bioinformatics platforms has the potential to revolutionize diagnostic microbiology and microbial surveillance. Through the study and characterization of ARGs in bacterial genomes and complex metagenomes, we are now able to reveal the genetic scope of AR in single bacteria and complex communities, and obtain important insights into AR dynamics at species, population and community levels, providing novel epidemiological and ecological perspectives. A suite of bioinformatics pipelines and ARG databases are currently available for genomic and metagenomic data analyses. However, different platforms may significantly vary and therefore, it is crucial to choose the tools that are most suitable for the specific analysis being conducted. This review provides a detailed account of available bioinformatics platforms for identification and characterization of ARGs and associated genetic elements within single bacterial isolates and complex environmental samples. It focuses primarily on currently available ARG databases, employing a comprehensive benchmarking pipeline to identify ARGs in four bacterial genomes (Aeromonas salmonicidaBacillus cereus, Burkholderia sp. and Escherichia coli) and three shotgun metagenomes (human gut, poultry litter and soil) providing insight into which databases should be used for different analytical scenarios.

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Platforms for elucidating antibiotic resistance in single genomes and complex metagenomes
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Lal Gupta, C.  -  Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Volcani Research Center, Agriculture Research Organization, Rishon Lezion 7528809, Israel .

Rohit Kumar Tiwari - Department of Biosciences, Integral University, Lucknow 226026, UP, India

 

Platforms for elucidating antibiotic resistance in single genomes and complex metagenomes

Antibiotic or antimicrobial resistance (AR) facilitated by the vertical and/or horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), is a serious global health challenge. While traditionally associated with pathogens in clinical environments, it is becoming increasingly clear that non-clinical environments may also be reservoirs of ARGs. The recent improvements in rapid and affordable next generation sequencing technologies along with sophisticated bioinformatics platforms has the potential to revolutionize diagnostic microbiology and microbial surveillance. Through the study and characterization of ARGs in bacterial genomes and complex metagenomes, we are now able to reveal the genetic scope of AR in single bacteria and complex communities, and obtain important insights into AR dynamics at species, population and community levels, providing novel epidemiological and ecological perspectives. A suite of bioinformatics pipelines and ARG databases are currently available for genomic and metagenomic data analyses. However, different platforms may significantly vary and therefore, it is crucial to choose the tools that are most suitable for the specific analysis being conducted. This review provides a detailed account of available bioinformatics platforms for identification and characterization of ARGs and associated genetic elements within single bacterial isolates and complex environmental samples. It focuses primarily on currently available ARG databases, employing a comprehensive benchmarking pipeline to identify ARGs in four bacterial genomes (Aeromonas salmonicidaBacillus cereus, Burkholderia sp. and Escherichia coli) and three shotgun metagenomes (human gut, poultry litter and soil) providing insight into which databases should be used for different analytical scenarios.

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