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Journal of Horticultural Science

Glenda Messer, Tel Aviv University

Growth characteristics of callus cultures derived from dwarfing (M.IX) and vigorous (M.XIII) apple rootstocks were studied and parameters of relative vigour for rootstocks in vivo were sought.

It was found that the M.IX and M.XIII cultures achieved maximum growth at the same concentrations of NAA and kinetin, and required both growth regulators for growth. However, different tendencies in response to varying concentrations of NAA and kinetin were shown by the two types.

The cultures of M.XIII displayed a higher growth rate than those of M.IX at the optimum concentrations of growth regulators. The average weight of M.XIII tissues was more than twice that of M.IX, after six weeks of growth.

The cultures of M.XIII were consistently friable, while those of M.IX were compact. M.XIII tissues contained a greater proportion of larger cells, whose maximal diameter was greater than that of M.IX. They also contained a higher water content and more diverse cellular forms than M.IX tissues.

The cells of M.IX contained a greater amount of starch and protein-nitrogen than those of M.XIII. These materials varied differently in quantity between the two types during the growth period.

Paper chromatography of tissue extracts showed the presence of a greater amount of phenolic substances in the tissues of M.IX. Stimulating and inhibiting effects on growth of tissues were tested by chromatographic fractions of ether extracts.

The relation of the growth characteristics studied here to those reported for dwarfing and vigorous apple rootstocks in vivo is discussed.

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Studies on vigour and dwarfism of apple trees in an in vitro tissue culture system
44

Glenda Messer, Tel Aviv University

Growth characteristics of callus cultures derived from dwarfing (M.IX) and vigorous (M.XIII) apple rootstocks were studied and parameters of relative vigour for rootstocks in vivo were sought.

It was found that the M.IX and M.XIII cultures achieved maximum growth at the same concentrations of NAA and kinetin, and required both growth regulators for growth. However, different tendencies in response to varying concentrations of NAA and kinetin were shown by the two types.

The cultures of M.XIII displayed a higher growth rate than those of M.IX at the optimum concentrations of growth regulators. The average weight of M.XIII tissues was more than twice that of M.IX, after six weeks of growth.

The cultures of M.XIII were consistently friable, while those of M.IX were compact. M.XIII tissues contained a greater proportion of larger cells, whose maximal diameter was greater than that of M.IX. They also contained a higher water content and more diverse cellular forms than M.IX tissues.

The cells of M.IX contained a greater amount of starch and protein-nitrogen than those of M.XIII. These materials varied differently in quantity between the two types during the growth period.

Paper chromatography of tissue extracts showed the presence of a greater amount of phenolic substances in the tissues of M.IX. Stimulating and inhibiting effects on growth of tissues were tested by chromatographic fractions of ether extracts.

The relation of the growth characteristics studied here to those reported for dwarfing and vigorous apple rootstocks in vivo is discussed.

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