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Gabriel Leitner - Emeritus Senior Scientist, National Mastitis Reference, Kimron Veterinary Institute, P.O.B. 12, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.
Shlomo E Blum - National Mastitis Reference Center, Department of Bacteriology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, P.O.B. 12, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.
Oloeg Krifuks - National Mastitis Reference Center, Department of Bacteriology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, P.O.B. 12, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.
Nir Edery - Pathology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development, P.O.B. 12, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.

The aim of the current study was to verify the existence of a significant correlation between bacterial isolation (or not) and mammary gland inflammation, using traditional bacterial culturing and PCR, milk leucocytes distributions, and tissue histology. Twenty-two cows were tested at the level of the individual gland for bacteriological culture and real-time PCR (RT-PCR), milk composition, somatic cells count (SCC), and cell differentiation. Post-slaughter samples of teat-ends and mammary tissues were tested for histology and bacteriology by RT-PCR. The 88 glands were assigned to either outcome: 1. Healthy-no inflammation and no bacterial finding (NBF) (n = 33); 2. Inflammation and NBF (n = 26); 3. Inflammation and intra-mammary infection (n = 22) with different bacteria. Bacteriology of milk samples and that of the RT-PCR showed 91.4% agreement. In the lobule's tissues of healthy glands, ~50% were milk producers and the other glands had dry areas with increased fat globules with a low number of leukocytes. In contrast, ~75% of the infected glands were identified as inflamed, but with no isolation of bacteria. Infiltration of mononuclear cells and neutrophils into the connective tissue was observed but not in the lobule's lumen. In summary, the study confirms that not every mastitis/inflammation is also an infection.

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Correlation Between Milk Bacteriology, Cytology and Mammary Tissue Histology in Cows: Cure From the Pathogen or Recovery From the Inflammation
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Gabriel Leitner - Emeritus Senior Scientist, National Mastitis Reference, Kimron Veterinary Institute, P.O.B. 12, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.
Shlomo E Blum - National Mastitis Reference Center, Department of Bacteriology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, P.O.B. 12, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.
Oloeg Krifuks - National Mastitis Reference Center, Department of Bacteriology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, P.O.B. 12, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.
Nir Edery - Pathology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development, P.O.B. 12, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.

Correlation Between Milk Bacteriology, Cytology and Mammary Tissue Histology in Cows: Cure From the Pathogen or Recovery From the Inflammation

The aim of the current study was to verify the existence of a significant correlation between bacterial isolation (or not) and mammary gland inflammation, using traditional bacterial culturing and PCR, milk leucocytes distributions, and tissue histology. Twenty-two cows were tested at the level of the individual gland for bacteriological culture and real-time PCR (RT-PCR), milk composition, somatic cells count (SCC), and cell differentiation. Post-slaughter samples of teat-ends and mammary tissues were tested for histology and bacteriology by RT-PCR. The 88 glands were assigned to either outcome: 1. Healthy-no inflammation and no bacterial finding (NBF) (n = 33); 2. Inflammation and NBF (n = 26); 3. Inflammation and intra-mammary infection (n = 22) with different bacteria. Bacteriology of milk samples and that of the RT-PCR showed 91.4% agreement. In the lobule's tissues of healthy glands, ~50% were milk producers and the other glands had dry areas with increased fat globules with a low number of leukocytes. In contrast, ~75% of the infected glands were identified as inflamed, but with no isolation of bacteria. Infiltration of mononuclear cells and neutrophils into the connective tissue was observed but not in the lobule's lumen. In summary, the study confirms that not every mastitis/inflammation is also an infection.

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