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Journal of Economic Entomology

John A Byers  - Semiochemical Solutions, Beer Yaakov, Israel.
Yonatan Maoz  - The Israel Fruit Growers Association, Yahud, Israel.

Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff), the polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), is an ambrosia beetle infesting avocado Persea americana Mill. limbs in North America and Israel. We conducted field experiments with sticky traps in avocado orchards to develop push-pull semiochemical methods of managing PSHB. Traps baited with 10-fold increasing doses (0.01 to 100× or 1.26 µg to 12.6 mg/d) of attractant quercivorol were previously shown to increasingly capture female PSHB (males flightless). We converted trap catch of this relationship to a standardized effective attraction radius (EAR) that predicts capture power of baited-traps regardless of insect flight density. Earlier, piperitone and verbenone were shown to strongly inhibit attraction of PSHB to quercivorol-traps. We tested increasing numbers of 1× piperitone dispensers at 0.75-m distance surrounding a quercivorol-trap and found PSHB catch to decline exponentially. Increasing decadic doses (0.01 to 10×) of either verbenone or piperitone released at 1× quercivorol-traps caused a sigmoidal first-order kinetic-decay in catch. Verbenone (1×) placed at increasing distances (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 m) from a 1× quercivorol-trap became increasingly ineffective in reducing catch of PSHB. We found no evidence that ethanol released from 7.5 to 480 mg/d affected attraction of PSHB, but Scobicia chevrieri (Villa and Villa) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) was increasingly attracted. Due to their relatively short-range (<0.5 m) inhibition of attractive sources, piperitone, and verbenone dispensers should be placed on avocado trunks where PSHB aggregations occur before the flight season.

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Semiochemicals Affecting Attraction of Ambrosia Beetle Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to Quercivorol: Developing Push-Pull Control

John A Byers  - Semiochemical Solutions, Beer Yaakov, Israel.
Yonatan Maoz  - The Israel Fruit Growers Association, Yahud, Israel.

Semiochemicals Affecting Attraction of Ambrosia Beetle Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to Quercivorol: Developing Push-Pull Control

Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff), the polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), is an ambrosia beetle infesting avocado Persea americana Mill. limbs in North America and Israel. We conducted field experiments with sticky traps in avocado orchards to develop push-pull semiochemical methods of managing PSHB. Traps baited with 10-fold increasing doses (0.01 to 100× or 1.26 µg to 12.6 mg/d) of attractant quercivorol were previously shown to increasingly capture female PSHB (males flightless). We converted trap catch of this relationship to a standardized effective attraction radius (EAR) that predicts capture power of baited-traps regardless of insect flight density. Earlier, piperitone and verbenone were shown to strongly inhibit attraction of PSHB to quercivorol-traps. We tested increasing numbers of 1× piperitone dispensers at 0.75-m distance surrounding a quercivorol-trap and found PSHB catch to decline exponentially. Increasing decadic doses (0.01 to 10×) of either verbenone or piperitone released at 1× quercivorol-traps caused a sigmoidal first-order kinetic-decay in catch. Verbenone (1×) placed at increasing distances (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 m) from a 1× quercivorol-trap became increasingly ineffective in reducing catch of PSHB. We found no evidence that ethanol released from 7.5 to 480 mg/d affected attraction of PSHB, but Scobicia chevrieri (Villa and Villa) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) was increasingly attracted. Due to their relatively short-range (<0.5 m) inhibition of attractive sources, piperitone, and verbenone dispensers should be placed on avocado trunks where PSHB aggregations occur before the flight season.

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